Lec14_08BIEB102

Lec14_08BIEB102 - Community Structure I. What is a...

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Community Structure I. What is a community? II. Community organization Food webs Top down versus bottom up control Keystone species
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What is a community? So far we have considered interactions between pairs of species: e.g., predators and prey (lecture 11) interspecific competition (lecture 12) mutualisms (lecture 13) Community : an association of interacting populations usually defined by the nature of the interaction or the place in which they live. A community’s species composition … … influences the flow of energy and nutrients within ecosystems. … determines the relative abundance of species by influencing their population processes.
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What is a community? A community’s species composition … … often changes over time ( Lec 15: succession) will differ from that of other communities in terms of species number and the relative abundance of species ( Lec 16 : diversity) … is profoundly influenced by history ( Lec 17 : biogeography)
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What is a community? Ricklefs Figure 24.19
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What is a community? Community: an association of interacting populations usually defined by the nature of the interaction or the place in which they live Guild: a group of species that occupy similar ecological positions within the same habitat Environment : the surroundings of an organism, including the plants, animals and microbes with which it interacts. Habitat: the place where a plant or animal usually lives, often characterized by a dominant plant form or the physical characteristics of the vegetation. Ecosystem : all of the interacting parts of the physical and biological worlds Biome : a major type of ecological community
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Ponderosa pine forest Deciduous forest Riparian forest Communities, like biomes, are often named after dominant plant taxa. Do these names identify real entities? What is a community?
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F.E. Clements viewed communities as discrete units of highly interacting and coevolving species, almost a superorganism. This is the holistic view of communities. Clements’s view included the following ideas: – that component species had coevolved so as to enhance their interdependent functioning – that communities were discrete entities with recognizable boundaries Clements saw the community as a superorganism: functions of various species are connected like the parts of the body What is a community?
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H.A. Gleason saw the community as a fortuitous association of species whose adaptations and requirements enable them to live together under the particular conditions of a particular place. This is the individualistic view. Gleason’s view included the following ideas: – that component species occurred together largely by coincidence – that there was no distinct boundary where one community meets another What is a community?
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Prediction of Clements: little overlap between the species in one community and another. Communities separated by
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Lec14_08BIEB102 - Community Structure I. What is a...

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