Lecture%204%20080410

Lecture%204%20080410 - BILD 1 Lecture 4 April 10, 2008...

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BILD 1 Lecture 4 April 10, 2008 Macromolecules II
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“Fun” Facts about Nobel Prize • Joseph Stalin was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 and 1948 for his efforts to end World War II. • Mahatma Gandhi was never awarded the Nobel Prize (12 nominations between 1937 and 1948.). • Only 33/785 Nobel Laureates are women.
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Preview Protein Amino acids Peptide bonds Conformation Folding and denaturation Nucleic acids Nucleotides Phosphodiester bond Structures
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Four main classes of biological macromolecules: Monomers: ) CARBOHYDRATES (Polysaccharides) SUGARS ) (LIPIDS - Make up membranes) Glycerol / FAs ) PROTEINS - Enzymes, etc. Amino Acids ) Nucleic Acids - DNA, RNA Nucleotides Review and Preview
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OTEINS Proteins account for > 50% of the dry mass of most cells. orkhorses of the cell; instrumental in all cellular rocesses. MINO ACIDS = Monomeric units of proteins. OLYPEPTIDE = A polymer of amino acids. ROTEIN = 3 dimensional conformation of ≥1 polypeptide.
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FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS Proteins have a wide array of functions in the cell: 1) ENZYMES: Catalyze chemical reactions 2) TRANSPORTERS: Hemoglobin carries Oxygen 3) STRUCTURAL SUPPORT: Collagen in skin 4) MOVEMENT: Contractile proteins in muscle 5) HORMONES: Insulin 6) DEFENSE: Antibodies to guard against infection 7) STORAGE: Ovalbumin in eggs supplies embryo
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Amino Acids Monomeric units of proteins Side chain determines the type of amino acid There are 20 naturally occurring amino acids (resulting in “endless” diversity of proteins Categorized into NON-POLAR, POLAR, and CHARGED Side chain
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Non-polar amino acids: Hydrophobic Smallest (protein flexibility) “Start” of protein Protein rigidity
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Polar and charged amino acids: Hydrophilic Protein stability (disulfide bridge)
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Peptide bonds : Link amino acids together into polypeptide chains via condensation reactions Existing polypeptide Adding amino acid Condensation/dehydration Determine functions
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Protein Conformation and Function (a) A ribbon model (b) A space-filling model Groove Groove Protein structure Function
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What determines protein conformation: Four Levels of Protein Structure Primary structure Is the unique sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide Like the letters that make up a word Depends of the length, order, and composition Read from N to C Amino acid subunits + H 3 N Amino
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Lecture%204%20080410 - BILD 1 Lecture 4 April 10, 2008...

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