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Lecture%2012%20080508%20mitosis

Lecture%2012%20080508%20mitosis - Lecture 12 Mitosis...

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Lecture 12 5/8/08 Mitosis
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Preview Cell Cycle Eukaryotic genomic organization Phases of mitotic cell cycle Regulation
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Cell Cycle Cell cycle is regulated by molecular control system; mis- regulation of cell cycle results in cancers. Cell theory : “Where a cell exists, there must have been a preexisting cell… Every cell from a cell.” Results in two genetically identical cells—the cellular basis of procreation. Can happen to unicellular organisms (reproducing entire organisms) and to multicellular organisms. Can happen to prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells… This lecture will focus primarily on eukaryotic cells .
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Why is Cell Cycle so important? In Unicellular organisms Reproduction In Multicellular organisms Development: 1-cell zygote into multi-cell adult Tissue renewal: repair and replacement of adult cells Reproduction: generation and amplification of gametes Sand dollar embryo after fertilization, forming two cells. Dividing blood cells
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Sea Urchin Cell Division davidson.edu
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Gametes vs Somatic cells Gametes : reproductive cells (eg. Sperm and egg cells). In human gametes, each nucleus contains one set of 23 different chromosomes (labeled chromosome 1 through 22, and X or Y sex chromosome). Somatic cells : all body cells that are not gametes (eg. Blood cells, muscle cells). In human somatic cells, each nucleus contains two sets of 23 different chromosomes, totaling 46 chromosomes (two each of chromosomes 1 through 22, and two sex chromosomes). Ploidity Thus, human somatic cells are diploid cells (2n; where n=23; 2n=46), and human gametes are haploid cells (n; n=23) n=number of chromosomes per set Macrophage
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Karyotype: profile of a person’s chromosomes mathemagic.org
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Review of Genome Organization All of the cell’s DNA must be copied in order to distribute one genome to each daughter cell (DNA Replication , will be discussed later) Genome total DNA containing an organism’s complete set of genes Bacterial genome 4.6 x 10 6 base pairs ( E. coli ) Fruitfly genome 1.2 x 10 8 base pairs Human genome 3.3 x 10 9 base pairs Chromosome 1 unit of double-stranded DNA; 1 set makes the genome Bacteria
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