7708d_c08_442-532 - Turbulent jet: The jet of water from...

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Unformatted text preview: Turbulent jet: The jet of water from the pipe is turbulent. The complex, irregular, unsteady structure typical of turbulent flows is apparent. (Laser-induced fluorescence of dye in water.) (Photography by P. E. Dimotakis, R. C. Lye, and D. Z. Papantoniou.) In the previous chapters we have considered a variety of topics concerning the motion of fluids. The basic governing principles concerning mass, momentum, and energy were de-veloped and applied, in conjunction with rather severe assumptions, to numerous flow situ-ations. In this chapter we will apply the basic principles to a specific, important topic—the flow of viscous, incompressible fluids in pipes and ducts. The transport of a fluid 1 liquid or gas 2 in a closed conduit 1 commonly called a pipe if it is of round cross section or a duct if it is not round 2 is extremely important in our daily operations. A brief consideration of the world around us will indicate that there is a wide va-riety of applications of pipe flow. Such applications range from the large, man-made Alaskan pipeline that carries crude oil almost 800 miles across Alaska, to the more complex 1 and cer-tainly not less useful 2 natural systems of “pipes” that carry blood throughout our body and air into and out of our lungs. Other examples include the water pipes in our homes and the distribution system that delivers the water from the city well to the house. Numerous hoses and pipes carry hydraulic fluid or other fluids to various components of vehicles and ma-chines. The air quality within our buildings is maintained at comfortable levels by the dis-tribution of conditioned 1 heated, cooled, humidified y dehumidified 2 air through a maze of pipes and ducts. Although all of these systems are different, the fluid-mechanics principles governing the fluid motions are common. The purpose of this chapter is to understand the basic processes involved in such flows. Some of the basic components of a typical pipe system are shown in Fig. 8.1. They in-clude the pipes themselves 1 perhaps of more than one diameter 2 , the various fittings used to connect the individual pipes to form the desired system, the flowrate control devices 1 valves 2 , and the pumps or turbines that add energy to or remove energy from the fluid. Even the most simple pipe systems are actually quite complex when they are viewed in terms of rigorous analytical considerations. We will use an “exact” analysis of the simplest pipe flow topics 1 such as laminar flow in long, straight, constant diameter pipes 2 and dimensional analysis considerations combined with experimental results for the other pipe flow topics. Such an approach is not unusual in fluid mechanics investigations. When “real world” effects are important 1 such as viscous effects in pipe flows 2 , it is often difficult or “impossible” to use 443 8 V iscous Flow in Pipes Pipe flow is very important in our daily operations. only theoretical methods to obtain the desired results. A judicious combination of experi-only theoretical methods to obtain the desired results....
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This note was uploaded on 09/06/2009 for the course CEE cv2601 taught by Professor Kellas,j during the Spring '09 term at Nanyang Technological University.

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7708d_c08_442-532 - Turbulent jet: The jet of water from...

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