NTR321 - Iron BB - Iron The numbers Iron deficiency Most...

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Iron
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The numbers Iron deficiency Most common micronutrient deficiency in the world Anemia 1.3 – 2 billion women, children and men are anemic
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Main functions of Iron Oxygen transport Co-factor of many enzymes Immunity
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Part of hemoglobin (Hgb) protein 80% of iron in body is found in hemoglobin Hgb is a component of Red Blood Cells Carries oxygen in RBC Part of myoglobin protein in muscle Accepts oxygen from hemoglobin and stores and releases oxygen to the muscle for metabolism Oxygen Transport Iron Functions
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Non Oxygen Transport Iron Functions Cofactor for many enzymes Carbohydrate metabolism Electron transport chain Synthesis of collagen Connective tissue, bone matrix (growth and wound healing) Synthesis of Neurotransmitters Dopamine, nor- and epinephrine, serotonin (brain fxn and development) Immune Function
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Forms of Iron in Food Heme From animal tissue Higher absorption rate (~15%) Non-Heme From plant products Also found in animal tissue Lower absorption rate (~3-8%)
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Factors Contributing to Increased Absorption of Non-Heme Iron Increased body need Low stores Special circumstances Pregnancy Growth MFP Protein in meat, fish, and poultry Vitamin C Acids HCl from stomach
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Factors Inhibiting Absorption of Non-Heme Iron Phytates (grains) Oxalates (vegetables) Fibers Polyphenols Tea (tannins) Coffee Excess minerals (supplements) Calcium Magnesium Zinc
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Generalities about Diets in Developing Countries Often low in Iron Food shortages When food is available Little meat Staple foods like corn are low in iron Some foods contain phytates or oxalates Also low in Vitamin A • Maybe low in Folate and B 12
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NTR321 - Iron BB - Iron The numbers Iron deficiency Most...

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