NTR 321 - Vulnerable Populations

NTR 321 - Vulnerable Populations - Vulnerable Populations...

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Vulnerable Populations Infants, children, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly
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Special Groups Infants Children Pregnant women Elderly What do they have in common?
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Definitions Growth - in the size and/or number of cells Hyperplasia – growth through cell number Hypertrophy – growth through cell size Development - in complexity or specialization of structure or function
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Cell Growth Critical growth is a period of cell division or hyperplasia; it varies for each organ and tissue Underfeeding – permanent in number of cells Overfeeding – permanent in number of cells
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Pregnancy and Lactation Poor diets associated with reproductive difficulties Chronic under nutrition vs acute under nutrition Starvation Growth Development
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Pregnancy and Lactation Increase needs Energy Protein Vitamins Minerals
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Energy - Pregnancy Ideally Increase intake Decrease activity Shortage of energy before pregnancy Women who were LBW infants have increased chance of delivering child with LBW Shortage of energy during pregnancy LBW child Increase approx 300 kcal/day
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LBW Infants Inadequate Energy and Protein lead to LBW Infants with LBW: Higher mortality and morbidity rates Limited nutrient reserves Increased nutrient needs Immature GI tract
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Protein - Pregnancy Shortage of protein during pregnancy Reduced number of cells in organs critical periods Irreversible Diabetes? Increase approx 25 grams/day
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Energy - Lactation Shortage of energy during pregnancy and/or lactation Reduced production of breastmilk Composition of protein and CHO relatively unchanged Composition of lipid reflects dietary intake Composition of vitamins and minerals Increase approx 330-400 kcals/day
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Protein - Lactation Shortage of protein during pregnancy Reduced production of breastmilk Composition of protein and CHO relatively unchanged Increase approx 25 grams protein/day for 6 months 12 grams pro/day thereafter
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Kcals and Protein When a diet is low in kcal and/or protein it is likely to be deficient in other nutrients
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This note was uploaded on 09/05/2009 for the course NTR Nutrition taught by Professor Meadows during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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NTR 321 - Vulnerable Populations - Vulnerable Populations...

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