NTR 321 - Zinc - Zinc DALYs DisabilityAdjusted Life Years...

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Unformatted text preview: Zinc DALYs DisabilityAdjusted Life Years Combines Years lost to premature death and Years lost to disability 28 million years or 2% of worldwide loss of healthy life years Cofactor for 100s of enzymes Functions of Zinc Carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism Superoxide dismutase Activity of zinc finger proteins Growth & cell development Tissue growth & repair Wound healing Tlymphocytes Immune function Cell membrane integrity Reproduction: spermatogenesis Zinc Finger Protein Freeman, S. (2002) Biological Science] Z Z Zinc Deficiency Outcomes Growth retardation Impaired immunity Impaired taste Delayed sexual maturation Impaired wound healing Deficiency Causes Increased needs Pregnancy ? Lactation Increased losses Diarrhea Fever Infection Intake Inadequate Bioavailability Absorption Passive and energydependant transport Highly variable rate 040% Increased when needs are high Decreased when optimal status is reached Decreased by phytates (grains), fiber, calcium and iron supplements Regulated in the gut Lowest absorption High grain and plant diet Metallothionein Food Sources Found in protein foods Expensive Not readily available Legumes, nuts, seeds In whole grains bound to phytates Leaven bread has more Yeast Lost in processing available zinc than unleaven Food Sources Zinc in human breast milk highly available Concentration falls over time Does not appear to be affected by supplementation Recommended Intakes Age Mixed Diet Unrefined Group Cereal Based Diet (US) 611 mo 1418 Yr Male 1418 Yr Male IZiNCG International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group 2004 (IZiNCG) 2.0 mg 5.0 mg 11.0 mg 14.0 mg 9.0 mg 11.0 mg Factors Suggesting Zinc Deficiency in a Population High phytate staple foods Low intake of "flesh"food Prevalent stunting High rate of diarrhea Geophagia Nutritional iron deficiency Assessing Zinc Levels Serum levels Hair Infection Time of day stunting Dietary assessment Functional response Growth Iran 1960's Children 12 years and less Stunting Hypogonadism Increase weight and height Greater increase in those most deficient Incidence and prevalence of diarrhea Immunity reduced with zinc supplementation 18% reduction in incidence 25% reduction in prevalence Reduced incidence of respiratory infection 41% reduction in incidence of pneumonia Malaria Mixed results Pregnancy Intrauterine growth No evidence Labor and delivery complications gestational age at birth Conflicting/limited evidence Neonatal immune status, early neonatal morbidity Positive evidence Beneficial Effects of Zinc Prevention Consistent effects on diarrhea and pneumonia morbidity; possible effects on malaria A few trials show mortality reduction Therapy Consistent effects with diarrhea; possible effects with pneumonia One trial shows mortality reduction Supplementation Syrup Well excepted but expensive Tablets Well excepted Food fortification ...
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