12. Eq. 23-6 (Gauss’ law) gives εοΦ = qenclosed. (a) Thus, the value Φ = 2.0×105 (in SI units) for small rleads to qcentral= +1.77×10−6 C or roughly 1.8 µC. (b) The next value that Φtakes is – 4.0×105 (in SI units), which implies 6enc3.54 10 C.q−=−×But we have already accounted for some of that charge in part (a), so
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