lecture_22__05 - Population Genetics: What is a population?...

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Population Genetics: What is a population ? - A localized group of individuals belonging to the same species Species : a group of genetically related individuals who can mate with each other and produce fertile offspring Gene Pool : all the genes in a population at a given time; total of all alleles at all loci for all individuals Allele Frequency : the frequency of a particular allele within the gene pool Genotype Frequency : the frequency of a particular genotype within the gene pool QuickTime 3 and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture. Fig. 23.3
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this kind of population Punnett square gives statistical information about a population, not about a specific individual Fig. 23.3 QuickTime and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture. these are the same allele frequencies as the first generation!
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If there are two alleles, A and a, for a particular locus, and p = frequency of “A” allele and q = frequency of “a” allele then p + q = 1 Independent segregation of genes through meiosis and fertilization does not change the genetic make-up of a population at equilibrium - The Hardy-Weinberg theorem: p 2 and q 2 = frequencies of the genotypes AA and aa 2pq = frequency of the heterozygous genotype Aa p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 If we know the frequency of alleles, we can determine the frequency of genotypes and if we know the frequency of genotypes, we can determine the frequency of alleles allele frequencies: genotype frequencies: The Hardy-Weinberg theorem can only predict the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a non-evolving population (idealized case)
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This document was uploaded on 09/06/2009.

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lecture_22__05 - Population Genetics: What is a population?...

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