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lecture 27 - Chapter 27 Biomolecules Lipids Based on...

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Chapter 27. Biomolecules: Lipids Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry , 7 th edition
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2 About Lipids Natural materials that preferentially extract into nonpolar organic solvents Includes fats, oils, waxes, some vitamins and hormones, some components of membrane General types: esters (“saponifiable”) and those that can’t be hydrolyzed
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3 Why this Chapter? Lipids are the largest and most diverse class of biomolecules To examine lipid structure, function, and metabolism
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4 27.1 Waxes, Fats, and Oils Waxes - contain esters formed from long-chain (C16- C36) carboxylic acids and long-chain alcohols (C24- C36) Triacontyl hexadecanoate is in beeswax
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5 Triacylglycerol Tri-esters of glycerol with three long-chain carboxylic acids, fatty acids .
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6 Fatty Acids (from Fats and Oils) Straight-chain (C 12 - C 20 ) carboxylic acids Double bonds are cis-substituted but trans-fatty acids also occur A fat or oil in nature occurs as a mixture of many different triacylglycerols The most abundant saturated fatty acids are palmitic (C 16 ) and stearic (C 18 )
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7 Unsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Oleic (C 18 with one C=C) and linolenic (C 18 with 3 C=C) are the most abundant unsaturated
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8 27.2 Soap A mixture of sodium or potassium salts of long-chain fatty acids produced by alkaline hydrolysis (saponification) of animal fat with alkali
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9 Cleansing Action of Soap The carboxylate end of the long-chain molecule is ionic and therefore is preferentially dissolved in water The hydrocarbon tail is nonpolar and dissolves in grease and oil Soaps enable grease to be dissolved into water
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