lecture 23 - Chapter 23 Mirrors and Lenses Notation for...

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    Chapter 23 Mirrors and Lenses
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    Notation for Mirrors and  Lenses The  object distance  is the distance from the  object to the mirror or lens Denoted by  p The  image distance  is the distance from the  image to the mirror or lens Images are formed at the point where rays actually  intersect or appear to originate Denoted by  q The  lateral magnification  of the mirror or lens is  the ratio of the image height to the object height Denoted by  M
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    Types of Images for Mirrors  and Lenses real image  is one in which light actually  passes through the image point Real images can be displayed on screens virtual   image  is one in which the light  does not pass through the image point The light appears to diverge from that point Virtual images cannot be displayed on screens
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    More About Images To find where an image is formed, it is  always necessary to follow at least two  rays of light as they reflect from the  mirror
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    Flat Mirror Simplest possible mirror Properties of the image  can be determined by  geometry One ray starts at P,  follows path PQ and  reflects back on itself A second ray follows  path PR and reflects  according to the Law of  Reflection
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    Properties of the Image  Formed by a Flat Mirror The image is as far behind the mirror as the  object is in front q = p The image is unmagnified The image height is the same as the object height h’ = h and M = 1 The image is virtual The image is upright It has the same orientation as the object There is an apparent left-right reversal in the  image
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    Application – Day and Night  Settings on Auto Mirrors With the daytime setting, the bright beam of reflected  light is directed into the driver’s eyes With the nighttime setting, the dim beam of reflected  light is directed into the driver’s eyes, while the bright  beam goes elsewhere
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    Spherical Mirrors spherical mirror  has the shape of a  segment of a sphere concave spherical mirror  has the silvered  surface of the mirror on the inner, or concave,  side of the curve convex spherical mirror  has the silvered  surface of the mirror on the outer, or convex,  side of the curve
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    Concave Mirror, Notation The mirror has a  radius  of curvature  of R Its  center of curvature  is  the point C Point V is the center of  the spherical segment A line drawn from C to  V is called the  principle  axis  of the mirror
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    Spherical Aberration Rays are generally 
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