lecture 26 - Chapter 26 Relativity Basic Problems The speed...

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    Chapter 26 Relativity
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    Basic Problems The speed of every particle in the universe  always remains  less than  the speed of light Newtonian Mechanics is a limited theory It places no upper limit on speed It is contrary to modern experimental results Newtonian Mechanics becomes a specialized case  of Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity When speeds are much less than the speed of light
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    Foundation of Special  Relativity Reconciling of the measurements of two  observers moving relative to each other Normally observers measure different  speeds for an object Special relativity relates two such  measurements
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    Galilean Relativity Choose a  frame of reference Necessary to describe a physical event According to Galilean Relativity, the laws of  mechanics are the same in all inertial frames  of reference An inertial frame of reference is one in which  Newton’s Laws are valid Objects subjected to no forces will move in straight  lines
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    Galilean Relativity – Example A passenger in an  airplane throws a ball  straight up It appears to move in a  vertical path This is the same motion  as when the ball is  thrown while at rest on  the Earth The law of gravity and  equations of motion  under uniform  acceleration are obeyed
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    Galilean Relativity – Example,  cont There is a stationary  observer on the ground Views the path of the ball  thrown to be a parabola The ball has a velocity to  the right equal to the  velocity of the plane
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    Galilean Relativity – Example,  conclusion The two observers disagree on the shape of  the ball’s path Both agree that the motion obeys the law of  gravity and Newton’s laws of motion Both agree on how long the ball was in the air Conclusion:  There is no preferred frame of  reference for describing the laws of  mechanics
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    Galilean Relativity –  Limitations Galilean Relativity does  not  apply to experiments in  electricity, magnetism, optics, and other areas Results do not agree with experiments The observer should measure the speed of the pulse as v+c Actually measures the speed as c
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    Luminiferous Ether 19 th  Century physicists compared  electromagnetic waves to mechanical waves Mechanical waves need a medium to support the  disturbance The  luminiferous ether  was proposed as the  medium required (and present) for light  waves to propagate Present everywhere, even in empty space Massless, but rigid medium Could have no effect on the motion of planets or  other objects
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    Verifying the
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lecture 26 - Chapter 26 Relativity Basic Problems The speed...

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