lecture 16 - The Carbonyl Group Aldehydes Ketones Chapter...

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Aldehydes Aldehydes & & Ketones Ketones Chapter 16 Chapter 16 The Carbonyl Group The Carbonyl Group In this and several following chapters, we study the physical and chemical properties of classes of compounds containing the carbonyl group, C=O The Carbonyl Group the carbonyl group consists of one sigma bond formed by the overlap of sp 2 hybrid orbitals and one pi bond formed by the overlap of parallel 2 p orbitals pi bonding and pi antibonding MOs for formaldehyde Structure Structure the functional group of an aldehyde is a carbonyl group bonded to a H atom and a carbon atom or another hydrogen atom the functional group of a ketone is a carbonyl group bonded to two carbon atoms Ethanal (Acetaldehyde) Methanal (Formaldehyde) O O CH 3 CH HCH Propanone (Acetone) O C H 3 C C H 3 Nomenclature IUPAC names: the parent chain is the longest chain that contains the functional group for an aldehyde, change the suffix from -e to - al al for an unsaturated aldehyde, change the infix from - an an- to - en en- ; the location of the suffix determines the numbering pattern for a cyclic molecule in which -CHO is bonded to the ring, add the suffix - carbaldehyde Nomenclature: Nomenclature: Aldehydes Aldehydes
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