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Micro-03-BiolMol - Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry...

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Organic Chemistry
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Organic chemistry • Study of the carbon atom and the compounds it forms
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• Organic molecules – contain both carbon and hydrogen atoms • Inorganic molecules – all other molecules
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• Monomer – single molecule that can combine with identical or similar molecules to form polymers • Polymer – chain of many monomers
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Hydrophilic molecules • Water-loving • Polar molecules • Dissolve in water
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Hydrophobic molecules • Water-fearing • Non-polar molecules • Don’t dissolve in water
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Carbon’s Bonding Behavior • Carbon atom has 4 electrons in its outermost energy shell • To be stable, it needs 8 electrons • Carbon atom forms 4 covalent bonds with other elements
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• Carbon bonds with other carbon atoms, forming chains or rings
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• Methane is the simplest hydrocarbon
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Functional Groups • Atoms or clusters of atoms that are covalently bonded to carbon backbone • Give organic molecules unique properties
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Hydroxyl group • Alcohols; carbohydrates • Hydrophilic – dissolves in water
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Carboxyl group • Organic acids, lipids, proteins • Acidic
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Amino group • Proteins • Basic
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Phosphate group • Nucleic acids, phospholipids, ATP • High negative charge
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Biological molecules • I. Carbohydrates • II. Lipids • III. Proteins • IV. Nucleic acids
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