Micro-04B-Cells - Prokaryotic cell structure and function...

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Unformatted text preview: Prokaryotic cell structure and function Bacterial cell size • Average size: 0.2 - 2.0 μm in diameter and 2 - 8 μm in length Bacterial cell shape • Monomorphic : all individuals have the same shape • Pleomorphic : have no distinctive shape or have a variety of shapes 3 shapes Arrangement Cocci • Division in one plane produces either a diplococcus or streptococcus arrangement • Diplococcus : cocci arranged in pairs • Streptococcus : cocci arranged in chains Diplococcus Arrangement Neisseria gonorrhoeae (diplococcus) Streptococcus pneumoniae (streptococcus) Streptococcus pyogenes (streptococcus) Streptococcus pyogenes Cocci • Division in two planes produces a tetrad arrangement • Tetrad : cocci arranged in squares of 4 A tetrad appears as a square of four cocci Cocci • Division in three planes produces a sarcina arrangement • Sarcina : cocci in arranged cubes of 8 Cocci in cubes of eight Cocci • Division in random planes produces a staphylococcus arrangement • Staphylococcus : cocci arranged in irregular, often grape-like clusters Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus Bacilli • All divide in one plane • Bacillus : single rod • Streptobacillus : rods arranged in chains • Coccobacillus : oval and similar to a coccus Pseudomonas aeruginosa E. coli Streptobacillus Streptobacillus Spirals • Vibrio : a curved or comma- shaped rod • Spirillum : a thick, rigid spiral • Spirochete : a thin, flexible spiral A vibrio appears as a curved bacillus Vibrio cholerae Spirillum Spirochete Leptospira interrogans (spirochete) I. Structures external to the cell wall • 1. Glycocalyx • 2. Flagella • 3. Axial filaments • 4. Fimbriae and pilli 1. Glycocalyx • Outer viscous covering of fibers • Made form polysaccharides or proteins • Capsule- organized and attached to the cell wall • Slime layer- unorganized and loosely attached to the cell wall Functions: • Attachment • Protection from attack by a hosts immune system • Protection from desiccation Capsule stain of Streptococcus lactis...
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Micro-04B-Cells - Prokaryotic cell structure and function...

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