chapter 25 - Chapter 25 Organic and Biological Chemistry...

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Chapter 25 Organic and Biological Chemistry
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Organic Chemistry The chemistry of carbon compounds. Carbon has the ability to form long chains. Without this property, large biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids could not form.
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Organic Chemistry
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Carbon forms very strong bonds between H, O, N, and halogens. Carbon also forms strong bonds with itself. Therefore, C can form stable long chain or ring structures. Bond strength increases from single to double to triple bond. Bond length decreases in the same direction. Physical Properties of Organic Physical Properties of Organic Molecules Molecules
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Carbon and hydrogen have very similar electronegativities, so the C-H bond is essentially non- polar. Therefore, compounds containing C-C and C-H bonds are thermodynamically stable and kinetically inert. Adding functional groups (e.g., C-O-H) introduces reactivity into organic molecules. Physical Properties of Organic Physical Properties of Organic Molecules Molecules
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Solubility Properties of Organic Substances Compounds with only C-C or C-H bonds are nonpolar and are soluble in nonpolar solvents and not very soluble in water. Water soluble organic molecules have polar functional groups. Surfactants have long nonpolar portions of the molecule with a small ionic or polar tip. Ex: found in oils and fats, soaps and detergents. .. Physical Properties of Organic Physical Properties of Organic Molecules Molecules
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Solubility and Acid-Base Properties of Organic Substances The most important organic acids are carboxylic acids with the -COOH functional group. Ex: acetic acid (CH COOH), ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) 2 3 2 2 Physical Properties of Organic Physical Properties of Organic Molecules Molecules
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Structure of Carbon Compounds There are three hybridization states and geometries found in organic compounds: sp 3 Tetrahedral sp 2 Trigonal planar sp Linear
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Hydrocarbons Four basic types: Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Aromatic hydrocarbons
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Alkanes Only single bonds. Saturated hydrocarbons. “Saturated” with hydrogens.
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Formulas Lewis structures of alkanes look like this. Also called structural formulas . Often not convenient, though…
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Formulas …so more often condensed formulas are used.
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Properties of Alkanes Only van der Waals force: London force. Boiling point increases with length of chain.
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Structure of Alkanes Carbons in alkanes sp 3 hybrids. Tetrahedral geometry. 109.5° bond angles.
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Structure of Alkanes Only σ -bonds in alkanes Free rotation about C—C bonds.
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Straight chain hydrocarbons have each C atom joined in a continuous chain. In a straight chain hydrocarbon
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This note was uploaded on 09/06/2009 for the course CHEM chem 1B taught by Professor Valentin during the Spring '09 term at Evergreen Valley.

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chapter 25 - Chapter 25 Organic and Biological Chemistry...

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