chapter 5 - Chapter 5 Chemical Thermodynamics Systems and...

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Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Chemical Thermodynamics Chemical Thermodynamics
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Systems and Surroundings System : part of the universe we are interested in. Surroundings : the rest of the universe.
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Systems and Surroundings THE UNIVERSE (System + Surroundings) The EARTH (System) You are here Surroundings
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System System and Surroundings and Surroundings The system includes the molecules we want to study (here, the hydrogen and oxygen molecules). The surroundings are everything else (here, the cylinder and piston).
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Energy Energy The ability to do work or transfer heat. Work : Energy used to cause an object that has mass to move. Heat : Energy used to cause the temperature of an object to rise.
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Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Potential energy is the energy an object possesses by virtue of its position. Internal energy of the system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energy. Energy Energy
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Potential Energy Potential Energy Energy an object possesses by virtue of its position or chemical composition.
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Kinetic Energy Kinetic Energy Energy an object possesses by virtue of its motion. 1 2 KE = mv
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Transferal of Energy a) The potential energy of this ball of clay is increased when it is moved from the ground to the top of the wall.
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Transferal of Energy b) As the ball falls, its potential energy is converted to kinetic energy.
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Transferal of Energy c) When it hits the ground, its kinetic energy falls to zero (since it is no longer moving); some of the energy does work on the ball, the rest is dissipated as heat.
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Transferring Energy: Work and Heat Work is the product of force applied to an object over a distance: Energy is the work done to move an object against a force. Heat is the transfer of energy between two objects. Energy is the capacity to do work or transfer heat. The Nature of Energy The Nature of Energy
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Internal Energy The internal energy of a system is the sum of all kinetic and potential energies of all components of the system; we call it E. Use Fig. 5.5
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Internal Energy By definition, the change in internal energy, E , is the final energy of the system minus the initial energy of the system: E = E final E initial Absolute E cannot be measured Use Fig. 5.5
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Changes in Internal Energy • If E > 0, E final > E initial Therefore, the system absorbed energy from the surroundings. This energy change is called endergonic .
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Changes in Internal Energy • If E < 0, E final < E initial Therefore, the system released energy to the surroundings. This energy change is called exergonic .
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Changes in Internal Energy When energy is exchanged between the system and the surroundings, it is exchanged as either heat ( q ) or work ( w ).
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chapter 5 - Chapter 5 Chemical Thermodynamics Systems and...

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