chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Acids and Bases A...

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Chapter 16 Acids and Bases
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Acids: taste sour, cause dyes to change color, and changes blue litmus to red. Bases: taste bitter, feel soapy, and changes red litmus to blue. Acids and Bases: A Brief Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Review
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Some Definitions Arrhenius Acid : Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of
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Some Definitions Brønsted–Lowry Acid: Proton donor Base: Proton acceptor
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+ Br Br ønsted-Lowry Acids and ønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Bases
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Proton Transfer Reactions Focus on the H ( aq ). Brønsted-Lowry: acid donates H and base accepts H . Br Br ønsted-Lowry Acids and ønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Bases
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Proton Transfer Reactions Consider HCl( aq ) + H O( l ) H O ( aq ) + Cl ( aq ): HCl donates a proton to water. Therefore, HCl is an acid. H 2 O accepts a proton from HCl. Therefore, H 2 O is a base. Br Br ønsted-Lowry Acids and ønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Bases
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If it can be either and acid or a base ...it is amphiprotic . HCO 3 HSO 4 H 2 O
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What Happens When an Acid Dissolves in Water? Water acts as a Brønsted–Lowry base and abstracts a proton (H + ) from the acid. As a result, the conjugate base of the acid and a hydronium ion are formed.
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Conjugate Acids and Bases: Reactions between acids and bases always yield their conjugate bases and acids.
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Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs HNO 2 (aq + H 2 O(l) NO 2 - + H 3 O + (aq) Acid Base Conjugate Conjugate base acid NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) NH 4 + + OH - (aq) Base Acid Conjugate Conjugate acid base
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Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases The stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base. Strong acids completely transfer their protons to water. Their conjugate bases do not get protonated in aq solutions Br Br ønsted-Lowry Acids and ønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Bases
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Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases - Br Br ønsted-Lowry Acids and ønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Bases
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1. Both substances act as Brønsted-Lowry bases. 2. Neither substance acts as a Brønsted-Lowry base. 3. NH 3( aq ) 4. HSO 4 ( aq )
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Acid and Base Strength Strong acids are completely dissociated in water. Their conjugate bases are quite weak . Weak acids only dissociate partially in water. Their conjugate bases are weak bases .
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Acid and Base Strength Substances with negligible acidity do not dissociate in water. Their conjugate bases are exceedingly strong.
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Acid and Base Strength In any acid-base reaction, the equilibrium will favor the reaction that moves the proton to the stronger base.
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Acid and Base Strength
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As we have seen, water is amphoteric. In pure water, a few molecules act as bases and a few act as acids. This is referred to as
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chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Acids and Bases A...

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