chapter 21 - Chapter 21 Nuclear Chemistry The Nucleus...

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Chapter 21 Nuclear Chemistry
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The Nucleus Remember that the nucleus is comprised of two nucleons , protons and neutrons. The number of protons is the atomic number. The number of protons and neutrons together is effectively the mass of the atom.
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Isotopes Not all atoms of the same element have the same mass due to different numbers of neutrons in those atoms. There are three naturally occurring isotopes of uranium: Uranium-234 Uranium-235 Uranium-238 234 92
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Isotopes There are three naturally occurring isotopes of uranium: Uranium-234 234 92 U Uranium-235 235 92 U Uranium-238 238 92 U
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Radioactivity It is not uncommon for some nuclides of an element to be unstable, or radioactive . We refer to these as radionuclides . There are several ways radionuclides can decay into a different nuclide.
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Radioactivity Nucleons: the particles in the nucleus (protons and neutrons) Radionuclides: nuclei that are radioactive Radioisotopes: atoms that contain radionuclides
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Types of Radioactive Decay
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1 Types of Radioactive Decay Radioactivity Radioactivity
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Alpha Decay: Loss of an α -particle (a helium nucleus) He 4 2 U 238 92 → U 234 90 He 4 2 +
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Beta Decay: Loss of a β -particle (a high energy electron) 1 0 n 1 1 p + + 0 -1 e - ( β -emission) 0 −1 e 0 −1 or I 131 53 Xe 131 54 → + e 0 −1
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Positron Emission: Loss of a positron (a particle that has the same mass as but opposite charge than an electron) 1 0 p + 1 0 n + 0 1 e + (positron or β + -emission) Write a balanced nuclear equation where oxygen undergoes positron emission. e 0 1 C 11 6 → B 11 5 + e 0 1
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Gamma Emission: Loss of a γ -ray (high-energy radiation that almost always accompanies the loss of a nuclear particle) 0 0
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Electron Capture This is the capture by the nucleus of an electron from the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus. 81 37 Rb + 0 -1 e 81 36 Kr
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Electron Capture (K-Capture) As a result, a proton is transformed into a neutron. p 1 1 + e 0 −1 → n 1 0
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2. Gain of a proton. 3. Loss of electrons. 4. Loss of an alpha particle.
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chapter 21 - Chapter 21 Nuclear Chemistry The Nucleus...

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