ESSENTIALS FOR MIDTERM 1 Concepts • Chemical bonds as stores of energy • Thermodynamics of chemical reactions • Relationship of Δ G o ’ and K’eq • Meaning of Δ G and its dependence on intracellular conditions • Chemical basis of ‘phosphoryl group transfer potential’ • Substrate-level phosphorylation of ADP to ATP • Coupling of thermodynamically unfavorable reactions to favorable conversions • General roles of enzymes and co-factors • Role of “thioesters” in metabolism Structures • Be able to recognize and to draw the structures (Fisher projections only) of glucose, mannose, fructose, galactose, glycerol; all intermediates (no co-factors) of anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis; phosphate. • Be able to recognize the structures of ATP/ADP/AMP/pyrophosphate; NAD + /NADH; FAD/FADH 2 , FMN/FMNH 2 ; coenzyme A (CoA-SH); thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP); lipoic acid; UDP-Glucose/Galactose. • Have general
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