COPD Lab

COPD Lab - 2 is normal to slightly reduced (65-75 mm Hg)...

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Lab Findings Spirometry provides information about pulmonary function and assess results of therapy. PFTs early in the course of COPD reveal only abnormal closing volume and reduced midexpiratory flow rate. Reductions in FEV 1 and forced expiratory volume to vital capacity ratio (FEV 1 /FVC) occur later in disease. FVC is markedly reduced in severe disease. There is a marked increased in residual volume (RV), an increase in total lung capacity (TLC), and elevation of RV/TLC ratio. Arterial blood gas measurements are necessary when hypoxemia or hypercapnia is suspected, the FEV 1 is <40% of predicted, or clinical signs of heart failure are present. In emphysema predom- inant disease, hemoglobin is usually normal, PaO
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Unformatted text preview: 2 is normal to slightly reduced (65-75 mm Hg) but SaO 2 is normal at rest, and PaCO 2 is normal to slightly reduced (35-40 mm Hg). In bronchitis predominat disease, hemoglobin is usually elevated (15-18 g/dL), PaO 2 is reduced (45-60 mm Hg), and PaCO 2 is slightly to markedly elevated (50-60 mm Hg). Sputum examination may reveal Streptococcus pneumoniae, H. influenza, or Moraxella ca-tarrhalis. ECG may reveal sinus tachycardia, chronic pulmonary hypertension in advanced dis-ease, supraventricular arrhythmia (multifocal atrial tachycardia, atrial flutter, and atrial fibrilla-tion) and ventricular irritability. Young patients with emphysema test positive for alpha 1-antiprotease....
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