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Unformatted text preview: chial walls are thickened, and bronchial lumen narrows. Therefore, leading to mucus plugs in the airways. Damage to the alveoli adjacent to bronchioles occurs resulting in altered function of al-veolar macrophages. This causes an increased susceptibility to respiratory infection. In emphysema, impaired gas oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange is the result from distention of air spaces beyond terminal bronchioles and destruction of alveoli. The walls of the alveoli are destroyed leading to a decrease in direct contact with pulmonary capillaries, causing an increase in dead space and impaired oxygen diffusion. As a result, hypoxemia occurs. In the later stages, carbon dioxide elimination is impaired which results in respiratory acidosis. Further damage to alveolar walls leads to an increase in pulmonary blood pressure leading to right sided heart fail-ure....
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- Spring '09