LC 2 BIS 103

LC 2 BIS 103 - Oxidation / reduction and structures Energy...

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Energy metabolism is burning fuel to store or use energy Oxidation / reduction and structures CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 C O 2 or O= C =O plus energy (heat) plus H 2 O + O 2 or O=O Energy metabolism is burning fuel to store or use energy In living cells, the same chemistry applies – but slowly and ordered! C O 2 or O= C =O plus energy (heat) plus water + O 2 or O=O CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 COOH COOH palmitic acid C16:0 C 16 H 32 O 2
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Energy metabolism is burning fuel to store or use energy C O 2 or O= C =O plus energy (heat) plus water plus NH 3 + O 2 or O=O All sorts of chemicals can be burned – but the energy output is different! proteins ! amino acids e.g. Asparagine C 4 H 8 N 2 O 3 starch carbohydrates e.g. Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 Oxidation is ‘donating electrons’ Reduction is ‘accepting electrons’ What does oxidation mean? Old (wrong, outdated) definition still helps, in case you forget…. (oxidation ~ more oxygen atoms than before or less hydrogen than before a reaction. Reduction ~ more hydrogen than before or less oxygen atoms than before a reaction.). Better: oxidation states (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxidation_state) Atoms in a molecule are compared with respect to their electronegativities. The more electronegative atom gets all electrons assigned. Elemental atoms have oxidation number ‘zero’ (e.g. elemental oxygen = O2 , both oxygen atoms have oxidation state zero) Total sum of oxidation number has to equal the charge state (e.g. an uncharged molecule has to balance all oxidation states) Oxygen usually carries the oxidation state -2 (except for special cases like peroxides) Hydrogen usually carries the oxidation state +1 (except for very special cases like hydrides). If two of the same elements in a molecule share a bond, they share the electrons of that bond equally.
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LC 2 BIS 103 - Oxidation / reduction and structures Energy...

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