9.1.09 Rabies virus - Wildlife Diseases 449 Rabies virus...

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Wildlife Diseases 449 Rabies virus Hydrophobia, Lyssa, Rage, Tollwut
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Rabies Viral induced neurological disease of warm-blooded animals. Only mammals are important in the epidemiology of rabies Described for at least four millennia, one of the oldest recognized infectious diseases Recorded as far back as the 12th century BC in Mesopotamia Probably originated in the African Continent Worldwide occurrence except for rabies free islands and states, 1. Hawaii 2. Guam 3. Australia 4. England 5. Japan 6. New Zealand
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Rabies New World VSC 449 Rabies in North America prior to Europeans ??? One of the first reports from a cleric in Mexico in 1703 and an outbreak in Mexico from a wolf in 1709. In the mid 1700s reports of rabid foxes and dogs were common throughout the mid-Atlantic British colonies . In Canada one of the first descriptions occurred when the Duke of Richmond was bitten by a pet fox and died. The translocation of infected dogs during ocean voyages of 4-8 weeks (less than the incubation period) probably was the major source of spread in the Western Hemisphere In the mid 1800’s importations of the Indian mongoose helped establish Rabies in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Grenada and Puerto Rico.
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W orld Population in billions   ( )             D ays to Circum navigate (             the G lobe            Y e a r 1 8 5 0 0 4 0 0 3 5 0 3 0 0 2 5 0 2 0 0 1 5 0 1 0 0 5 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 9 0 0 1 9 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Speed of Global Travel in Relation to World Population Growth From: Murphy and Nathanson. Semin. Virol. 5, 87, 1994
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Translocations of the Mongoose For Rats in Sugar Cane
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Rabies Etiology Causative Agent-Virus Rhabdoviridae Family (Rhabdo means Rod) A Large Rod shaped Virus with one flat end and one round end. Shaped like a bullet. Lyssavirus genera Adapted to replication in mammalian neural tissue” Labile Virus which doesn’t persist long in the environment. Sunlight, warm temperatures, drying, heat and common disinfectants destroy its infectivity.
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Electron Microscope View Negatively Stained Rabies Virus
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Rabies Virus Cross Section Rabies Virus
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Rabies Virus Cross Sectional
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Transmission of Rabies Usually thru infected saliva entering bite wounds . Virus migrates up peripheral nerves to the spinal cord and ends up in the brain. Aerosol transmission has been documented from caves with large populations of infected bats. Laboratory aerosol has also been documented…. RARE Organ donations —documented from early corneal transplantation. In 2004 four US citizens died from rabies acquired via organ transplantation from the same donor…… RARE
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Encephalitis
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Incubation of Rabies Averages one to three months Can be as short as several days to several years Rarely more than 6 months Bite location and amount of virus present are the two most important factors in incubation of the virus. Virus migrates from
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9.1.09 Rabies virus - Wildlife Diseases 449 Rabies virus...

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