9.4.09 integumentary system

9.4.09 integumentary system - 1 The Integumentary System o...

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The Integumentary System o Skin and its accessory structures -structure -function -growth and repair -development -aging -disorders General Anatomy o A large organ composed of all 4 tissue types (epithelial, muscle, connective, neural) o Covers outside of animal o Continuous with mucous membranes at oral, anal and urogenital orifices, nostril, and the palpebral fissure (located at eye) via mucocutaneous junction Overview o 2 Major layers of skin -epidermis is epithelial tissue only -dermis is layer of connective tissue, nerve, and muscle o Subcutaneous tissue (subQ or hypodermis) is layer of adipose & areolar tissue -subQ = subcutaneous injection -intradermal = within the skin layer Overview of Epidermis o Stratified squamous epithelium Contains no blood vessels 4 types of cells 4 distinct strata (layers of cells) Cell types of the Epidermis o Keratinocytes--90% -produces keratin o Melanocytes-----8 % -produces melanin pigment -melanin transferred to other cells with long cell processes o Langerhan cells -from bone marrow -provide immunity 1
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o Merkel cells -in deepest layer of epidermis -form touch receptors with sensory neuron Layers (Strata) of the Epidermis o Stratum corneum o Stratum lucidum o Stratum granulosum o Stratum spinosum o Stratum basale Stratum Basale o Deepest single layer of cells Called stratum germinativum Combination of merkel cells, melanocytes, keratinocytes and stem cells that divide repeatedly Cells attach to each other and to the basement membrane by the use of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes Stratum Spinosum o 8 to 10 cell layers held together by desmosomes During slide preparation, cells shrink and look spiny Melanin taken in by phagocytosis from nearby melanocytes Stratum Granulosum o 3 - 5 layers of flat dying cells Show nuclear degeneration Contain dark-staining keratohyalin granules Contain lamellar granules that release lipid that repels water (makes our skin repellant to water) Stratum Lucidum o Three to five layers of clear, flat, dead cells Contains precursor of keratin 2
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Stratum Corneum o 25 to 30 layers of flat dead cells filled with keratin and surrounded by lipids Continuously shed Barrier to light, heat, water, chemicals and bacteria Friction of these cells stimulates callus formation o Stem cells divide to produce keratinocytes As keratinocytes are pushed up towards the surface, they fill with keratin
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This note was uploaded on 09/07/2009 for the course V SC 315 taught by Professor - during the Spring '09 term at Arizona.

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9.4.09 integumentary system - 1 The Integumentary System o...

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