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*Author for correspondence Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 10(11), DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2017/v10i11/106137, March 2017 ISSN (Print) : 0974-6846 ISSN (Online) : 0974-5645 Application of “8D Methodology” for the Root Cause Analysis and Reduction of Valve Spring Rejection in a Valve Spring Manufacturing Company: A Case Study T. S. M. Kumar* and B. Adaveesh Department of IEM, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumakuru - 572103, Karnataka,, India; [email protected] Abstract The Eight Disciplines (8D) is a problem solving technique intended to identify the root cause of a problem. 8D is a phenomenal first step to enhancing Quality and Reliability when the product is defective or not satisfying the customer. The study was conducted in a manufacturing company producing springs and stampings. The data was collected for a period of Six months from January 2014 to June 2014, to identify defective percentage of valve spring components and they were found to be high at the average rate of 17.07%. In this work the objective was set to reduce the rejection level to 5%. In order to achieve this, 8D problem solving technique was used to analyse and solve the problem. Then, Pareto analysis was done to identify vital causes contributing defectives. From the Pareto analysis, it was found that functioning length variation (L2) is the major cause for rejection. Further brainstorming sessions was held to identify the root causes. After the brainstorming session, cause and effect diagram was constructed and 5why analysis was carried out and it was found to be variation in the pitch distance at the begin-end side leading to negative helix in the functioning length of the valve spring. The suggestions to reduce the rejection percentage were to make pitch distance equal at begin-end side of the valve spring and to gradually increase the pitch up to 2 coils. After implementing the suggestion the pitch distance were equal at the begin-end side of the spring which reduces the negative helix in the functioning length reducing the percentage of rejection to 4.91% in July 2014, from average rejection of 17.07% (6 months data). Keywords: 5why Analysis, 8D Method, Negative Helix, Pareto Analysis, Valve Spring 1. Introduction The 8D sometimes also referred as Ford TOPS 8D, 8D, and Global 8D. Many industries especially in automo- tive sector consume the 8D methodology as a tool in the essence of standardizing process. The 8D consists of a group or teams working together in order to solve the problems by utilizing an organized 8 step approach to help focus on facts, rather than the opinions. It is a powerful method in creating appropriate activities in order to identify the root causes and give permanent solutions to eliminate the root causes. There are reports of effective utilization of this strategy to manage con- stant repeating issues, fundamentally imperfections or guarantee issues 1 . This method was first developed and adopted by Ford Motor Company, then in 1980’s it was known as Team Oriented Problem Solving (TOPS). The early usage of 8D exhibited so powerful and essential

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