Biology Class Notes - Biology Class Notes 25/07/2007...

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Biology Class Notes 25/07/2007 00:42:00 PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS Proteins can become denatured – the two main factors that can denature a protein are change in temperature and change in pH. High temperatures and low pHs can denature proteins. Some proteins can be reversed, while others cannot. Do questions 1, 2, 3 and 5 on Page 53 and make your hypothesis for the experiment which you are doing with the one and only chaitra who is the best in the world! Question 1: Page 53-54 Q. 1: a) polypeptides: a chain of amino aids proteins: a chain of polypeptides with secondary and tertiary structures b) fat is solid at room temperatures oil is liquid at room temperatures c) starch is carbohydrates stored in the body glycogen is specifically glucose stored in the body d) hydrolysis is used to split the bonds in proteins by removing water condensation e) hydrophobic literally translated, means scared of water while hydrophilic translates into liking water. So hydrophobic amino acids shy away from water, while hydrophilic amino acids position themselves close to water. (for lab report make data table with four columns – sugar, observation, amount of precipitate, reducing sugar)
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28/08/2007 Cell theory 1) Scientific theories: a.) Are based upon scientific evidence b.) Have been tested many times and in many ways c.) Must explain all of the evidence that has been collected d.) Can never be proven; can only be disproven e.) Finds natural causes for natural events f.) A scientific theory is not: religion, belief, faith – these are personal and not testable by scientific methods. 2) Cell theory: a.) All living things are made of cells b.) The cell is the basic unit of structure and function c.) All cells come from pre-existing cells 3) Are cells one size?
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Structure Size Molecule 1 nm Membrane thickness 10 nm Viruses 100 nm Bacteria 1 um Organelles Up to 10 um Cells Up to 100 um 4) Are cells one shape? – bigger variety than size; depends upon function 5) What limits size of cell? a.) flow of information into cell and material in and out of cell limits cell size to 5-50 um b.) metabolic rate of a cell is proportional to its volume, i.e. Rate of heat and waste production and resource consumption is a function of its volume c.) rate of exchange of materials and energy is a function of its surface area d.) if s/v is too low, then materials are too slow to enter and leave the cell and the cell may overheat because the heat leaves too slowly 6) Characteristics of all living things: a.) Reproduction b.) Heredity – contain genetic volume c.) Cellular organisation – made of cells d.) Metabolism – use energy e.) Homeostasis maintains balance 7) Characteristics of some living things: a.) Sensitivity – sensitive to external stimulation b.) Complexity c.) Movement d.) Development – grow and change
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e.) Death 8) Unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life a.) Nutrition – obtaining food to provide energy and materials needed for growth
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Biology Class Notes - Biology Class Notes 25/07/2007...

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