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NEW MATERIAL ON EXSC 223 FINAL

NEW MATERIAL ON EXSC 223 FINAL - NEW MATERIAL ON EXSC 223...

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NEW MATERIAL ON EXSC 223 FINAL (CHAPTER 28) Meiosis Haploid Gametes (N=23) “egg & sperm” Fertilization Diploid Zygote (2N=46) Mitosis & Development Multicellular Diploid Adults (2N=46) Know how formed/structure; what goes on; how it’s regulated; what’s made there & the signal: Primary sex organs: GONADS o Testes –males o Ovaries –females Function: Produce gametes (sex cells) Produce sex hormones Know function & relation to glands: Accessory reproductive organs: Remaining reproductive structures o Ducts o Glands o External genitalia o Common purpose of male & female reproductive organs = produce offspring Male gamete = sperm Female gamete = ova (egg) Goal = fertilization *cancer risk because of a lot of cell division & hormone sensitivity Be able to understand anatomy (diagram) of male; and compare to female
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Ex: in male, common duct for semen & urine (unlike female) MALE SCROTUM Sac of skin & superficial fascia @ root of penis Testes suspended within (sperm can’t be produced at body temp) o Scrotum temp = 3 o lower Response to temp o Dartos muscle —smooth; wrinkles scrotal skin o Cremaster muscles —skeletal muscle; from trunk; raise testes TESTES Know name & function of each structure 4 cm long & 2.5 cm diameter Surrounded by 2 tunics o Tunica vaginalis = outer o Tunica albuginea = deep, fibrous capsule Septa divide testis into 250-300 lobules o Lobule : each contain 1 – 4 seminiferous tubules Site of sperm synthesis Leydig cells –produce androgens Pampiniform plexus Surrounds testicular artery Absorbs head from artery Testicular Cancer o Most common cancer in young males o Painless solid mass
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Mumps Cryptorchidism—non-descent testes o Detected by self examination MALE DUCT SYSTEM --transport sperm from testes to outside of body EPIDIDYMIS o 3.3 cm long; joins @ efferent ductules of testes o Bulk is duct of epididymis (6 m) o Pseudostratified epithelium with non-motile microvilli; absorb excess fluid, add nutrients o 20 days for immature sperm to move through o Sperm can be stored for several months, then phagocytized (broken down) o Smooth muscle walls contract during ejaculation moving sperm DUCTUS DEFERONS (VAS DEFERENS) o 18 in. long; moves sperm from epididymis to urethra o Terminus forms with the seminal gland to form “ejaculatory duct” Ejaculatory duct passes into prostate gland & then empties into urethra Know what happens: o Vasectomy ductus deferens tied off Sperm still produced, but not phagocytized PENIS o Capulatory organ for sperm delivery o Along with scrotum, make up male external genitalia Define: o Composed of root & shaft (foreskin cover circumcision) INTERNAL:
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Spongy urethra Erectile tissue (control size of penis) o Erection—vascular spaces full w/blood o 3 cylindrical bodies Corpus spongiosum —surrounds urethra **Unique b/c it surrounds urethra (keeps it from closing & no sperm delivery---expands & keeps urethra open) Corpra cavernosa —make up bulk of penis o
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