BearCh01-ACRQedt - Chapter 01 Neuroscience: Past, Present,...

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Chapter 01 – Neuroscience: Past, Present , and Future Answers to Chapter Review Questions Page 1 of 5 Copyright © 2007. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Ancillary material to accompany Bear et al.: Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3e Question 1: What are brain ventricles, and what functions have been ascribed to them over the ages? Answer: Brain ventricles are hollow, fluid filled spaces within the brain. The Greek physician and writer Galen ( A . D . 130–200) suggested that the body functioned according to a balance of four vital fluids or humors. Sensations were registered and movements were initiated by the movement of humors to or from the brain ventricles via the nerves. He thought that the brain ventricles helped the brain register sensations and control the limb movements. In the early seventeenth century, French inventors supported the fluid-mechanical theory of brain function. This theory stated that the fluid forced out of the ventricles through the nerves cause the movement of the limbs by inflating the muscles. The chief advocate of this theory was the French mathematician and philosopher Rene Descartes. Question 2: What experiment did Bell perform to show that the nerves of the body contain a mixture of sensory and motor fibers? Answer: Bell tested the possibility that the two spinal roots, which are formed by the division of spinal nerves just before they join the spinal cord, carry information in opposite directions. The dorsal root enters toward the back of the spinal cord while the ventral root enters toward the front. He cut each root separately and observed the consequences in experimental animals. He found that cutting only the ventral roots caused muscular paralysis. Later, Magendie was able to show that the dorsal roots carry sensory information into the spinal cord. Bell and Magendie concluded that each spinal nerve contains a mixture of many wires, some of which bring information into the spinal cord and others that send information out to the muscles.
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Chapter 01 – Neuroscience: Past, Present ,
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2009 for the course SPHSC 449 taught by Professor Peter during the Summer '09 term at University of Washington.

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BearCh01-ACRQedt - Chapter 01 Neuroscience: Past, Present,...

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