449_BhatnagarCh2excerpt - 2 Gross Anatomy of the Central...

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2 Gross Anatomy of the Central Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, students should be able to do the fol- lowing: • Differentiate the central and peripheral nervous systems List structures in the central and peripheral nervous systems and describe their functions List principal embryonic divisions of the brain and gross anatomical structures related to each division • Identify gross anatomical structures of the brain, describe their locations, and explain their functions • Identify gross anatomical structures of the spinal cord and ex- plain their functions • Identify internal structures of the cerebral cortex, midbrain, pons, medulla, and spinal cord and describe their functions • Identify parts of the ventricular cavities • Describe the meninges, their locations, and their functions • Differentiate the various medullary fibers and describe their functions List the cranial nerves, cite their anatomical locations, and de- scribe their major sensory and motor functions Discuss the anatomy and functions of the autonomic nervous system ST UCTURES OF CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS The human nervous system can best be described as the generator of the electrical and chemical energy distributed throughout the body for the control of vari- ous body functions. The nervous system performs four important roles: sensor, effector, integrator, and regu- lator. As the sensor, it receives all environmental and bodily generated changes. As the effector, it initiates all body movements. As the integrator, it combines infor- mation received from all sources and modalities. As the regulator, it maintains the homeostatic state for the opti- mum control of peek body performance and repair. Nervous System Anatomically, the nervous system consists of two major parts: the central nervous system (eNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord (Fig. 2-1A). The brain is re- sponsible for initiating, controlling, and regulating all sensorimotor and cognitive (mental) functions that gen- erate and regulate human behaviors. The spinal cord is primarily a wire cable structure in the CNS that trans- mits motor commands to various body parts that inter- act with the environment. Also the sensory information that is collected from the peripheral body parts and the environment is transmitted to the brain via the spinal cord. Some sensory input is processed locally in the spinal cord and regulates peripheral reflex motor activ- ity. The CNS is protected by a bony shell. The brain is encased in a tough bony skull, and the spinal cord is similarly protected by the vertebral column, which con- sists of a series of bones and tough cartilaginous wash- erlike structures; the washers buffer body movements and weight bearing. The CNS is encased in three mem- branous coverings, the meninges. They may be visual- ized as three "diapers," covering the CNS from the top of the brain to the tip of the spinal cord. Between the two
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2009 for the course SPHSC 449 taught by Professor Peter during the Summer '09 term at University of Washington.

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449_BhatnagarCh2excerpt - 2 Gross Anatomy of the Central...

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