3_NeuronsGlia - Bear: Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain 3e...

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Slide 1 Bear: Neuroscience: Exploring the  Brain 3e Chapter 02: Neurons and  Glia
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Review Homunculus What is “central” about the CNS? You are riding your bike and a car does a right  hook, almost knocking you over. Explain your  response in terms of  Sympathetic NS Parasympathetic NS You are listening to your MP3 player. Listening is mostly an (afferent) (efferent)  process. You click the “off” button, using mostly  (afferent) (efferent) pathways. Slide 2 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
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Introduction “Neurophilosophy” Brain is the origin of mental abilities Glia and Neurons Glia: Insulate, support, and nourish neurons Neurons Process information Sense environmental changes  Communicate changes to other neurons Command body response 100 billion neurons in the brain, 10 times as  many glia Slide 3 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
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4 Neural Transmission Neurons differ from other cells: They have longer processes They are more highly polarized (negative electric  charge) They are more excitable The can live a long time (as long as the whole  organism) The USUALLY don’t divide (“amitotic” = no mitosis) Don’t have centrioles If they get damaged, you don’t grow new ones, like your  skin does But … in the hippocampus, there IS neurogenesis!!! They have a high metabolic rate: need lots of  oxygen and glucose; can only survive for a few  minutes without oxygen  Hypoxic injury, e.g., carbon monoxide poisoning
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Slide 5 The Neuron Doctrine Histology (= study of microscopic anatomy of  cells and tissues) Study of tissue structure Need microscopes and stains to see cell  parts The Nissl Stain Facilitates the study of cytoarchitecture in  the CNS Stains nuclei and Nissl bodies (aka  endoplasmatic reticulum) picasaweb.google.com/. ../vK
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Slide 6
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3_NeuronsGlia - Bear: Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain 3e...

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