PartIINeural Development & Plasticity

PartIINeural Development & Plasticity - Neural...

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Unformatted text preview: Neural Development & Plasticity Part II SPHSC 449, 8/16/05 Susan McLaughlin Remember: Neural Plasticity = physical changes in the brain involving modification of structure/ circuits due to experience Remember: Adult neural plasticity: Postnatal plasticity limited compared to prenatal Cells are not free to migrate to new areas Large changes in long-distance connectivity are unlikely For the most part, damaged neurons in the CNS are not thought to regenerate (as opposed to those in the PNS) However, adult neural plasticity known to exist Adult Neural Plasticity Possibly can result from: Altering the strength of a given synaptic input Potential neurogenesis Rerouting, rewiring of connections Axonal sprouting and synaptogenesis Unmasking, disinhibition of previously silent circuits Adult Neural Plasticity Overview of lecture: Cellular bases of learning and memory Evidence about adult neurogenesis Large-scale neural reorganization due change in sensory input (e.g., injury) Cellular bases of learning & memory Donald Hebb (1904-1985) Interested in connecting brain and behavior Hebbs Law/Hebbian Learning Hebb wrote, When the axon of cell Aexcites cell B and repeatedly or persistently takes part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic change takes place in one or both cells so that As efficiency as one of cells firing B is increased. Neurons that fire together wire together Cellular bases of learning & memory Early research into learning/memory & LTP Importance of the hippocampus Bliss and Lomo 1983 Long-term potentiation (LTP) Long-lasting increase in synaptic efficiency in response to high-frequency stimulation of afferent fibers Increase in synaptic efficiency persists for minutes to days LTP observed in many structures in addition to the hippocampus (cortex, brain stem, amygdala) Is not limited to mammals occurs in other vertebrates and some invertebrates How LTP is measured Cellular bases of learning & memory How LTP is measured Place stimulating electrode in pathway (on postsynaptic axon)....
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PartIINeural Development & Plasticity - Neural...

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