PART1Neural Development & Plasticity

PART1Neural Development & Plasticity - Neural...

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SPHSC 449, 8/11/05 Susan McLaughlin
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Overview of Neural Plasticity Plasticity : physical changes in the brain involving modification of structure/ circuits due to experience
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Overview of Neural Plasticity Manifestations of neural plasticity Plasticity that accompanies genetically predetermined neural development Critical periods Specific time ranges in life when experience can maximally influence the organization and function of the nervous system Likely correspond to specific stages of neural development such as the formation of synaptic connections or the presence and activity of molecular cues for specifying neuronal connectivity
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Overview of Neural Plasticity More manifestations of neural plasticity But even after critical periods pass, some level of neural plasticity remains: Learning and memory throughout life Cortical reorganization in response to changed environment, neural injury
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Overview of lecture Neural development and influence of plasticity Adult plasticity: Learning and memory Adult neurogenesis Cortical reorganization
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Neural Development Some questions to start with….
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Neural Development Questions Remember: The Neuron Doctrine Brodmann’s Map (early 1900s) (early 1900s) Ramon y Cahal
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Neural Development Questions
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Neural Development Questions
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Neural Development Questions Some questions to start with: Remember that the brain is not an equipotential mass of randomly connected neurons, but is instead highly organized and precisely connected network of neurons and neural circuits – How does it get this way? How does the organization develop from a single fertilized egg? We know that genetic predetermination plays a huge role, but how, for instance, will it happen that my twins – who the doctors think are identical, and therefore come from a single egg – how do they turn out to be different people, with different behaviors and personalities? What is the time course of neural development?
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Neural Development Early Stages of Gross Development After fertilization embryogenesis : multicellular blastula (32 cells), containing 3 main cell types: Ectoderm from which will form the nervous system, the outer skin, lens of the eye, inner ear, and hair Mesoderm from which will form the skeletal system and voluntary muscle Endoderm from which will form the gut and digestive organs
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Neural Development Early Stages of Gross Development Gastrulation Ectoderm surrounds the entire embryo Mesoderm & endoderm layers become segregated dorsally & ventrally Neurulation Ectodermal cells on the dorsal surface form the neural plate Neural plate folds in, forming the neural groove
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Neural Development Early Stages of Gross Development Neurulation continued: Groove deepens and the far edges of the neural plate eventually meet each other, forming the neural tube , which runs anteriorly and posteriorly along the embryo
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PART1Neural Development & Plasticity - Neural...

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