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Phil-Midterm Review Sheet

Phil-Midterm Review Sheet - Validity If the premises are...

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Validity : If the premises are true then the conclusion must be true Soundness : Valid if the premises are true Formal Validity : Valid even if all the terms aren’t understood Supererogatory : An action is supererogatory if it goes above and beyond the call of duty Utilitarianism : Utilitarianism has three parts: 1) the consequentialist theory of the right, that you ought always to do what will have the best results (1 pt), 2) a theory of the good, that only happiness is intrinsically good (1 pt), and 3) a theory of happiness (1 pt). Mill’s theory is that happiness consists in pleasure and avoiding pain. Consequentialism : we ought always to do whatever action will have the best results. Intrinsic Value : What is naturally good in itself Instrumental value : Something has instrumental value if it is good (1 pt) for the sake of something else (1 pt), or what you can get for it. Hedonism : Only pleasure is intrinsically good; Only pain is intrinsically bad Maxim : Motive for doing an action Tragedy of the Commons : The Tragedy of the Commons is the problem that arises when each person has an individual incentive (1 pt) to over-use a common resource (1 pt), and as a result everyone is worse off (1 pt). For example, if everyone makes individual decisions about how much to fish, everyone will fish more than is sustainable in the long run. Kant’s Formula of Universal Law would tell us not to act in these ways. Free Riding : If everyone rides the subway for free, then the subway will cease to exist, therefore this cannot be a categorical imperative and thus we should not act in this way. Categorical Imperative : They are moral requirements that have to apply to everyone; Acting on only such a maxim that you can will it to be a universal law. Hypothetical imperative : Things you ought to do, because you have some aim or goal.
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Counterexamples : An example of a situation that contradicts another idea in theory Slippery Slope: Moral Status : Noonan: Moral Status begins at Fertalization; Teleological : Teleos means end; Teleological differences are differences between the roles of certain actions. Personhood : humanity Quickening : When the first signs of movement are detected Viability : When a baby can live on it’s own without the mother The Trump Principle : Can a woman abort a fetus to save her own life? Who’s life/right to life trumps the other’s. Thought experiment : Thought experiments can be used to test principles. First you need a hypothesis and then you need an example that is different enough that thinking about it sheds new light but similar enough that it controls for relevant variables Active euthanasia : Taking direct action to kill a person. Rachels agrees that active euthanasia is preferable to passive euthanasia because it prevents unnecessary suffering.
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Phil-Midterm Review Sheet - Validity If the premises are...

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