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Logic I

# Logic I - conclusion could be false(a good bet ex The sun...

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I. What is logic? Logic : The search for good arguments Argument : two or more statements, where one is said to follow Statement : A claim, could be false if things are not claimed Premise of an argument : A statement from which another is said to follow Conclusion of an argument : A statement said to follow from another or others. Good deductive arguments are called valid, Good inductive arguments are called strong Valid deductive argument : one where it is impossible for the premises to be true while the conclusion is false Sound deductive argument : A valid argument with true premises Examples: 1. All Fish have scales 1. If two is even, four is even 2. You are a Fish 2. Two is even 3. Thus you have scales 3. Thus, four is even (valid but unsound) (sound) Strong inductive argument : despite everything leading up to the conclusion is true the conclusion could be false (a good bet)

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Unformatted text preview: conclusion could be false (a good bet) ex: The sun rises everyday, but that does not mean is will rise everyday *This course is primary concerned with valid arguments* Inductive argument: particular premise -> General conclusion Deductive argument: general premise -> particular conclusion A particular premise or conclusion begins w/ the term "some" or "at least one" or e/ the name of an individual A general premise or conclusion begins with the term "all" or "every" or "in every case" making Predictions from stat. generalizations would also fail to count as inductive reasoning (general -> particular) Statistical Reasoning is inductive Mathematicians tend to draw general conclusions from general premises thus if deductive arguments had to move from general premise to particular conclusions, most mathematicians reasoning would fail to be deductive Aristotle- while observing particular events, you could discover general principles (induction) Reasoning begins when we deduce consequences from these discovered principles...
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