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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 NOTES : Humans among the Primates Names and Classifications Homo sapiens = Humankind ( Homo is man, sapiens is wise) Name Coined by Carl von Linne (L I NEAUS) , Swedish Biologist o In order to label each living organism, he chose Latin for the names because it was a convenient international language. o System Naturae = Famous book o He grouped the similar ones in classes and orders to form a hierarchic arrangement. Phenetic Classification a taxonomy based on physical similarities or differences between species or other taxa. Today classify based on evolutionary relationships: o Taxonomy classification of plants or animals according to their relationships and the ordering of these groups into hierarchies. Phylogenetic classifications a taxonomy that reflections evolutionary descent and is based on the pattern of primitive and derived traits; in traditional evolutionary classifications, traits may be given different weights. o Taxon - a group of organisms at any level of classification scheme o Many modern evolutionary biologists favor: cladistic classifications on evolutionary-based taxonomy that gives equal weight to traits and requires sister groups to be similarly ranked. Primitive T rait a characteristic inherited from an early ancestor and widely shared among descendants Unique Derived T rait a characteristic that is a unique evolutionary adaptation of a species Shared Derived T rait a characteristic inherited from a relatively recent ancestor and found among a few close taxa. Cladogram a branching tree diagram displaying evolutionary relationships among organisms Clade members of an evolutionary cluster plus their common ancestor. o Monophyletic a clade with a single common ancestor Homologous generally, traits that are shared by two or more taxa due to descent from a common ancestor....
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2009 for the course ANTH 123 taught by Professor Johnson during the Spring '08 term at UNC.
- Spring '08