Chapter 1 Psy Terms

Chapter 1 Psy Terms - Chapter 1 Applied psychology- The...

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Chapter 1 Applied psychology- The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems. Behavior Any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism. Behaviorism -A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior. Clinical psychology- The branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders. Cognition -The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge. Critical thinking The use of cognitive skills and strategies that increase the probability of a desired outcome. Culture- The widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations. Empiricism-The premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation. Ethnocentrism -The tendency to view one’s own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways. Evolutionary psychology -Theoretical perspective that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations. Functionalism- A school of psychology based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure. Humanism- A theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth. Introspection Careful, systematic observation of one’s own conscious experience. Natural selection- Principle stating that heritable characteristics that provide a survival reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be “selected” over time. Positive psychology- Approach to psyychology that uses theory and research to better understand the
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Chapter 1 Psy Terms - Chapter 1 Applied psychology- The...

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