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Contracts_II_Outline_Midterm - CONTRACTS II Spring 2007...

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CONTRACTS II Spring 2007 – Professor Edith Warkentine I. Parol Evidence Rule A. The Parol Evidence is the principle that when parties reduce their agreement to a  written record, it is often intended the written record to be the final embodiment of the  agreement.  If so, the final draft must have been intended to supersede earlier  negotiations and communications to the extent that its terms depart from or do not  include what was formerly agreed.  As a result, evidence of any prior/earlier  agreement is irrelevant and misleading, and should be kept from the fact-finder. 1. “Integrations” – A document is said to be an “integration” of the parties’  agreement if it is intended as the final expression of the agreement (The rule  applies only to documents which are “integrations,” in writing.) a) Partial Integration – A partial integration is a document that is  intended to be final, but that is not intended to include all details of the  parties’ agreement. (1) When a writing is a partial integration, no evidence of prior or  contemporaneous agreements/negotiations (oral or written)  may be admitted if this evidence would contradict a term of the  writing. b) Total/Full integration – A total integration is a document that is not  only a final expression of agreement, but that is also intended to  include all details of the agreement. (1) When a document is a total integration, no evidence of prior or  contemporaneous agreements or negotiations may be  admitted which would either contradict or add to the writing. c) Thus, extrinsic evidence may NEVER be allowed to contradict a  writing 2. The parol evidence rule will  NOT  affect evidence of either oral/written  agreements made after the execution of the writing. a) This is in fact a modification, which is subject to its own rules. b) Oral Modification Clause: Be careful if the written agreement has a  clause that seeks to prevent future oral modifications by requiring that  all modifications must be in writing and signed by the parties! Period leading up to  Point of Execution Period after  Execution of writing Execution of writing ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Oral Agreement Written Contract Oral Agreement Written Agreement Page 1 of 20 9/9/2009
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Subject to rule Oral agreement- is a modification subject to rule Written agreement- likely not subject to rule May be part of set of  Not subject to rule documents  constituting the  writing-should be  admitted and evaluated.
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