This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: FOCUS QUESTIONS What is geology? the study of the solid part of the earth What are its two main branches of Geology and what do they cover? physical: the study of earth’s composition, earth’s minerals and rocks as well as the physical processes that affect this planet. historical: covers the history of the earth. What sort of relationship exists between geologic processes and human affairs? we use mined natural goods every day, geologic disasters, influences where we live, understand history, affects our philosophy. Prior to the science of Geology, what was the age of the Earth considered to be? 6000 years old How was this age determined? Interpretations of biblical chronologies Who was Steno and what were his contributions to Geology? Niels Stensen aka steno was a physician. wrote the book Prodromus (the Introduction). proposed the law of superposition, and law of crosscutting relationships. Steno is generally given the title, Father of Stratigraphy , and he is recognized as the first to clearly perceive that the strata (rock layers) of earth’s crust contains a chronologically arrange record of earth’s geologic history. What is the law of superposition? a solid, like a fossil for example, has to be solid before being enclosed in the rock. ex: layers on the earth, the lower layers= the older What is the law of crosscutting relationships? if the layer cuts through another layer, the layer cutting is younger. Who was William Smith and what was his contribution to Geology? an engineer who was interested in rocks and fossils. he mapped Europe which was entitled “The Map the Changed the World”. proposed the principle of faunal succession. What is the principle of faunal succession? to use fossils to determine the relative ages of all sedimentary rocks Who was James Hutton and what was his contribution to the science of Geology? a physician turned gentleman farmer, founded a friendly little society called the Oyster Club. is considered the Father of Modern Geology. proposed uniformitarianism. What is the concept of Uniformitarianism? assuming that geologic processes have proceeded at a constant or uniform rate through earth history. ex: mountains growing, canyons cutting How do Uniformitarianism and Catastrophism differ? catastrophism: The idea of a chaotic early earth. approach might have called upon a great flood to have deposited the rock layer atop the mountain or it was deposited beneath the sea but a cataclysmic upheaval thrust the rock to its present lofty position. uniformitarianism: some organism had died at the bottom of the ocean, had become buried and eventually covered by an untold thickness of sediment that later turned to sedimentary rock. Still later, the sedimentary layer with fossils aboard would be raised above sea level, ultimately to thousands of feet above sea level to where the layer was, in time, exposed through the slow cutting action of steams or glaciers. All of this must have taken an enormous amount of time, more than the thousands of years of human history, perhaps even millions of years. more than the thousands of years of human history, perhaps even millions of years....
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 09/09/2009 for the course GEO 301 taught by Professor Long during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas.
- Spring '07