Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 Rotation of a Rigid Object
About a Fixed Axis
CHAPTE R OUTLI N E 10.1 Angular Position, Velocity,
and Acceleration
10.2 Rotational Kinematics:
Rotational Motion with
Constant Angular Acceleration
10.3 Angular and Linear Quantities
10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy
10.5 Calculation of Moments
of Inertia
10.6 Torque
10.7 Relationship Between Torque
and Angular Acceleration
10.8 Work, Power, and Energy in
Rotational Motion
10.9 Rolling Motion of a Rigid
Object L The Malaysian pastime of gasing involves the spinning of tops that can have masses up 292 to 20 kg. Professional spinners can spin their tops so that they might rotate for hours before
stopping. We will study the rotational motion of objects such as these tops in this chapter.
(Courtesy Tourism Malaysia) When an extended object such as a wheel rotates about its axis, the motion cannot be analyzed by treating the object as a particle because at any given time different parts
of the object have different linear velocities and linear accelerations. We can, however,
analyze the motion by considering an extended object to be composed of a collection
of particles, each of which has its own linear velocity and linear acceleration.
In dealing with a rotating object, analysis is greatly simpliﬁed by assuming that the
object is rigid. A rigid object is one that is nondeformable—that is, the relative locations of all particles of which the object is composed remain constant. All real objects
are deformable to some extent; however, our rigidobject model is useful in many situations in which deformation is negligible. 10.1 Rigid object Angular Position, Velocity, and Acceleration Figure 10.1 illustrates an overhead view of a rotating compact disc. The disc is rotating
about a ﬁxed axis through O. The axis is perpendicular to the plane of the ﬁgure. Let
us investigate the motion of only one of the millions of “particles” making up the disc.
A particle at P is at a ﬁxed distance r from the origin and rotates about it in a circle of
radius r. (In fact, ever y particle on the disc undergoes circular motion about O.) It is
convenient to represent the position of P with its polar coordinates (r, ), where r is
is measured counterclockwise from some
the distance from the origin to P and
reference line as shown in Figure 10.1a. In this representation, the only coordinate
for the particle that changes in time is the angle ; r remains constant. As the particle
0), it moves through an arc of
moves along the circle from the reference line (
length s, as in Figure 10.1b. The arc length s is related to the angle through the
relationship r
O P Reference
line (a) P
r
O s u
Reference
line (b) s r
s
r (10.1a) (10.1b) Note the dimensions of in Equation 10.1b. Because is the ratio of an arc length
and the radius of the circle, it is a pure number. However, we commonly give the artiﬁcial unit radian (rad), where Figure 10.1 A compact disc
rotating about a ﬁxed axis through
O perpendicular to the plane of the
ﬁgure. (a) In order to deﬁne
angular position for the disc,
a ﬁxed reference line is chosen.
A particle at P is located at a
distance r from the rotation axis
at O. (b) As the disc rotates, point
P moves through an arc length s on
a circular path of radius r. one radian is the angle subtended by an arc length equal to the radius of the arc.
Because the circumference of a circle is 2 r, it follows from Equation 10.1b that 360°
corresponds to an angle of (2 r/r) rad 2 rad. (Also note that 2 rad corresponds
293 C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis 294 L to one complete revolution.) Hence, 1 rad 360°/2
57.3° . To convert an angle in
degrees to an angle in radians, we use the fact that rad 180°, or PITFALL PR EVE NTI O N 10.1 Remember the
Radian (rad) In rotational equations, we must
use angles expressed in radians.
Don’t fall into the trap of using
angles measured in degrees in rotational equations. y ,tf r , ti θf
θi
O 180 For example, 60° equals /3 rad and 45° equals /4 rad.
Because the disc in Figure 10.1 is a rigid object, as the particle moves along the circle from the reference line, every other particle on the object rotates through the same
angle . Thus, we can associate the angle with the entire rigid object as well as
with an individual particle. This allows us to deﬁne the angular position of a rigid object in its rotational motion. We choose a reference line on the object, such as a line
connecting O and a chosen particle on the object. The angular position of the rigid
object is the angle between this reference line on the object and the ﬁxed reference
line in space, which is often chosen as the x axis. This is similar to the way we identify
the position of an object in translational motion—the distance x between the object
and the reference position, which is the origin, x 0.
As the particle in question on our rigid object travels from position
to position
in a time interval t as in Figure 10.2, the reference line of length r sweeps out an
is deﬁned as the angular displacement of the
angle
f
i. This quantity
rigid object: x Figure 10.2 A particle on a
rotating rigid object moves from
to along the arc of a circle. In
the time interval t tf ti , the
radius vector moves through an
angular displacement
f
i. (deg) f i The rate at which this angular displacement occurs can vary. If the rigid object spins
rapidly, this displacement can occur in a short time interval. If it rotates slowly, this displacement occurs in a longer time interval. These different rotation rates can be quantiﬁed by introducing angular speed. We deﬁne the average angular speed (Greek
omega) as the ratio of the angular displacement of a rigid object to the time interval
t during which the displacement occurs:
f i tf Average angular speed ti t In analogy to linear speed, the instantaneous angular speed
limit of the ratio / t as t approaches zero:
lim Instantaneous angular speed t :0 t d
dt (10.2) is deﬁned as the (10.3) Angular speed has units of radians per second (rad/s), which can be written as
second 1 (s 1) because radians are not dimensional. We take to be positive when is
increasing (counterclockwise motion in Figure 10.2) and negative when is decreasing
(clockwise motion in Figure 10.2). Quick Quiz 10.1 A rigid object is rotating in a counterclockwise sense
around a ﬁxed axis. Each of the following pairs of quantities represents an initial angular position and a ﬁnal angular position of the rigid object. Which of the sets can only
occur if the rigid object rotates through more than 180°? (a) 3 rad, 6 rad (b) 1 rad,
1 rad (c) 1 rad, 5 rad. Quick Quiz 10.2 Suppose that the change in angular position for each of
the pairs of values in Quick Quiz 10.1 occurs in 1 s. Which choice represents the lowest
average angular speed? S E C T I O N 1 0 . 1 • Angular Position, Velocity, and Acceleration 295 ω ω Figure 10.3 The righthand rule for determining the direction of the angular velocity vector. If the instantaneous angular speed of an object changes from i to f in the time
interval t, the object has an angular acceleration. The average angular acceleration
(Greek alpha) of a rotating rigid object is deﬁned as the ratio of the change in the angular speed to the time interval t during which the change in the angular speed occurs:
f tf i ti t (10.4) Average angular acceleration In analogy to linear acceleration, the instantaneous angular acceleration is
deﬁned as the limit of the ratio
/ t as t approaches zero:
lim t:0 t d
dt (10.5) Angular acceleration has units of radians per second squared (rad/s2), or just
second 2 (s 2). Note that is positive when a rigid object rotating counterclockwise is
speeding up or when a rigid object rotating clockwise is slowing down during some
time interval.
When a rigid object is rotating about a ﬁxed axis, every particle on the object
rotates through the same angle in a given time interval and has the same angular
speed and the same angular acceleration. That is, the quantities , , and characterize the rotational motion of the entire rigid object as well as individual particles in the
object. Using these quantities, we can greatly simplify the analysis of rigidobject rotation.
Angular position ( ), angular speed ( ), and angular acceleration ( ) are analogous to linear position (x), linear speed (v), and linear acceleration (a). The variables
, , and differ dimensionally from the variables x, v, and a only by a factor having
the unit of length. (See Section 10.3.)
We have not speciﬁed any direction for angular speed and angular acceleration.
Strictly speaking, and are the magnitudes of the angular velocity and the angular
acceleration vectors1 and , respectively, and they should always be positive. Because
we are considering rotation about a ﬁxed axis, however, we can use nonvector notation
and indicate the directions of the vectors by assigning a positive or negative sign to
and , as discussed earlier with regard to Equations 10.3 and 10.5. For rotation about a
ﬁxed axis, the only direction that uniquely speciﬁes the rotational motion is the direction along the axis of rotation. Therefore, the directions of and are along this axis.
If an object rotates in the xy plane as in Figure 10.1, the direction of
is out of the
plane of the diagram when the rotation is counterclockwise and into the plane of the
diagram when the rotation is clockwise. To illustrate this convention, it is convenient to
use the righthand rule demonstrated in Figure 10.3. When the four ﬁngers of the right
1 Although we do not verify it here, the instantaneous angular velocity and instantaneous angular acceleration are vector quantities, but the corresponding average values are not. This is because angular
displacements do not add as vector quantities for ﬁnite rotations. Instantaneous angular
acceleration L PITFALL PR EVE NTI O N 10.2 Specify Your Axis
In solving rotation problems, you
must specify an axis of rotation.
This is a new feature not found in
our study of translational motion.
The choice is arbitrary, but once
you make it, you must maintain
that choice consistently throughout the problem. In some
problems, the physical situation
suggests a natural axis, such as the
center of an automobile wheel. In
other problems, there may not be
an obvious choice, and you must
exercise judgement. 296 C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis hand are wrapped in the direction of rotation, the extended right thumb points in the
d /dt. It is in the
direction of . The direction of follows from its deﬁnition
same direction as if the angular speed is increasing in time, and it is antiparallel to
if the angular speed is decreasing in time. Quick Quiz 10.3 A rigid object is rotating with an angular speed
0.
The angular velocity vector and the angular acceleration vector are antiparallel.
The angular speed of the rigid object is (a) clockwise and increasing (b) clockwise
and decreasing (c) counterclockwise and increasing (d) counterclockwise and
decreasing. 10.2 Rotational Kinematics: Rotational Motion
with Constant Angular Acceleration
In our study of linear motion, we found that the simplest form of accelerated motion
to analyze is motion under constant linear acceleration. Likewise, for rotational motion about a ﬁxed axis, the simplest accelerated motion to analyze is motion under
constant angular acceleration. Therefore, we next develop kinematic relationships for
dt, and let ti 0 and
this type of motion. If we write Equation 10.5 in the form d
tf t, integrating this expression directly gives
Rotational kinematic equations f t i (for constant ) (10.6) where i is the angular speed of the rigid object at time t 0. Equation 10.6 allows us
to ﬁnd the angular speed f of the object at any later time t. Substituting Equation 10.6
into Equation 10.3 and integrating once more, we obtain
f L PITFALL PR EVE NTI O N 10.3 Just Like
Translation?
Equations 10.6 to 10.9 and Table
10.1 suggest that rotational kinematics is just like translational
kinematics. That is almost true,
with two key differences: (1) in
rotational kinematics, you must
specify a rotation axis (per Pitfall
Prevention 10.2); (2) in rotational motion, the object keeps
returning to its original orientation—thus, you may be asked for
the number of revolutions made
by a rigid object. This concept
has no meaning in translational
motion, but is related to
,
which is analogous to x. it i 1
2 t2 (for constant ) (10.7) where i is the angular position of the rigid object at time t 0. Equation 10.7 allows
us to ﬁnd the angular position f of the object at any later time t. If we eliminate t from
Equations 10.6 and 10.7, we obtain
f 2 i 2 2( i) f (for constant ) (10.8) This equation allows us to ﬁnd the angular speed f of the rigid object for any value of
its angular position f . If we eliminate between Equations 10.6 and 10.7, we obtain
f i 1
(i
2 f )t (for constant ) (10.9) Notice that these kinematic expressions for rotational motion under constant angular acceleration are of the same mathematical form as those for linear motion under
constant linear acceleration. They can be generated from the equations for linear motion by making the substitutions x : , v : , and a : . Table 10.1 compares the
kinematic equations for rotational and linear motion. S E C T I O N 1 0 . 3 • Angular and Linear Quantities 297 Table 10.1
Kinematic Equations for Rotational and Linear
Motion Under Constant Acceleration
Rotational Motion
About Fixed Axis
f
f
2 i f f i i i 2 Linear Motion t
12
t
it
2
2(f
i)
1
(i
)t
f
2 vf
xf
vf 2
xf vi
xi
vi 2
xi at
1
vi t 2at 2
2a(x f x i )
1
(v
vf )t
2i Quick Quiz 10.4 Consider again the pairs of angular positions for the rigid
object in Quick Quiz 10.1. If the object starts from rest at the initial angular position,
moves counterclockwise with constant angular acceleration, and arrives at the ﬁnal angular position with the same angular speed in all three cases, for which choice is the
angular acceleration the highest?
Example 10.1 Rotating Wheel A wheel rotates with a constant angular acceleration of
3.50 rad/s2. f t i 2.00 rad/s (3.50 rad/s2)(2.00 s) 9.00 rad/s (A) If the angular speed of the wheel is 2.00 rad/s at ti 0,
through what angular displacement does the wheel rotate in
2.00 s? We could also obtain this result using Equation 10.8 and the
results of part (A). Try it! Solution We can use Figure 10.2 to represent the wheel. We
arrange Equation 10.7 so that it gives us angular displacement: What If? Suppose a particle moves along a straight line f i it 1
2 t2 (2.00 rad/s)(2.00 s)
11.0 rad 1
(3.50
2 rad/s2)(2.00 s)2 (11.0 rad)(57.3 /rad) 630 (B) Through how many revolutions has the wheel turned
during this time interval?
Solution We multiply the angular displacement found in part
(A) by a conversion factor to ﬁnd the number of revolutions:
630 1 rev
360 Answer Notice that these questions are translational
analogs to parts (A) and (C) of the original problem. The
mathematical solution follows exactly the same form. For
the displacement,
x xf xi vit 12
at
2 (2.00 m/s)(2.00 s) 1.75 rev (C) What is the angular speed of the wheel at t 1
(3.50
2 m/s2)(2.00 s)2 11.0 m
2.00 s? Solution Because the angular acceleration and the angular
speed are both positive, our answer must be greater than
2.00 rad/s. Using Equation 10.6, we ﬁnd 10.3 with a constant acceleration of 3.50 m/s2. If the velocity of
the particle is 2.00 m/s at ti 0, through what displacement
does the particle move in 2.00 s? What is the velocity of the
particle at t 2.00 s? and for the velocity,
vf vi at 2.00 m/s (3.50 m/s2)(2.00 s) 9.00 m/s Note that there is no translational analog to part (B) because
translational motion is not repetitive like rotational motion. Angular and Linear Quantities In this section we derive some useful relationships between the angular speed and acceleration of a rotating rigid object and the linear speed and acceleration of a point in
the object. To do so, we must keep in mind that when a rigid object rotates about a
ﬁxed axis, as in Figure 10.4, every particle of the object moves in a circle whose
center is the axis of rotation. 298 C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis y Because point P in Figure 10.4 moves in a circle, the linear velocity vector v is always tangent to the circular path and hence is called tangential velocity. The magnitude
of the tangential velocity of the point P is by deﬁnition the tangential speed v ds/dt,
where s is the distance traveled by this point measured along the circular path. Recalling that s r (Eq. 10.1a) and noting that r is constant, we obtain v
P
s r
u v x O Because d /dt Active Figure 10.4 As a rigid object
rotates about the ﬁxed axis through
O, the point P has a tangential
velocity v that is always tangent to
the circular path of radius r.
At the Active Figures link
at http://www.pse6.com, you
can move point P and observe
the tangential velocity as the
object rotates. ds
dt d
dt r (see Eq. 10.3), we see that
v r (10.10) That is, the tangential speed of a point on a rotating rigid object equals the perpendicular distance of that point from the axis of rotation multiplied by the angular speed.
Therefore, although every point on the rigid object has the same angular speed, not
every point has the same tangential speed because r is not the same for all points on the
object. Equation 10.10 shows that the tangential speed of a point on the rotating object
increases as one moves outward from the center of rotation, as we would intuitively expect. The outer end of a swinging baseball bat moves much faster than the handle.
We can relate the angular acceleration of the rotating rigid object to the tangential
acceleration of the point P by taking the time derivative of v :
at
at Relation between tangential
and angular acceleration dv
dt d
dt r r (10.11) That is, the tangential component of the linear acceleration of a point on a rotating
rigid object equals the point’s distance from the axis of rotation multiplied by the angular acceleration.
In Section 4.4 we found that a point moving in a circular path undergoes a radial
acceleration ar of magnitude v 2/r directed toward the center of rotation (Fig. 10.5).
Because v r for a point P on a rotating object, we can express the centripetal acceleration at that point in terms of angular speed as y
at ac P a
ar O x r 2 (10.12) The total linear acceleration vector at the point is a at ar , where the magnitude of ar is the centripetal acceleration ac . Because a is a vector having a radial and a
tangential component, the magnitude of a at the point P on the rotating rigid object is
a Figure 10.5 As a rigid object
rotates about a ﬁxed axis through
O, the point P experiences a
tangential component of linear
acceleration at and a radial
component of linear acceleration
ar . The total linear acceleration of
this point is a at ar . v2
r √a t 2 ar 2 √r 2 2 r2 4 r√ 2 4 (10.13) Quick Quiz 10.5 Andy and Charlie are riding on a merrygoround. Andy
rides on a horse at the outer rim of the circular platform, twice as far from the center
of the circular platform as Charlie, who rides on an inner horse. When the merrygoround is rotating at a constant angular speed, Andy’s angular speed is (a) twice Charlie’s (b) the same as Charlie’s (c) half of Charlie’s (d) impossible to determine. Quick Quiz 10.6 Consider again the merrygoround situation in Quick Quiz
10.5. When the merrygoround is rotating at a constant angular speed, Andy’s tangential speed is (a) twice Charlie’s (b) the same as Charlie’s (c) half of Charlie’s (d) impossible to determine. S E C T I O N 1 0 . 3 • Angular and Linear Quantities CD Player On a compact disc (Fig. 10.6), audio information is stored
in a series of pits and ﬂat areas on the sur face of the disc.
The information is stored digitally, and the alternations between pits and ﬂat areas on the sur face represent binary
ones and zeroes to be read by the compact disc player and
converted back to sound waves. The pits and ﬂat areas are
detected by a system consisting of a laser and lenses. The
length of a string of ones and zeroes representing one piece
of information is the same everywhere on the disc, whether
the information is near the center of the disc or near its
outer edge. In order that this length of ones and zeroes always passes by the laser–lens system in the same time period,
the tangential speed of the disc sur face at the location of
the lens must be constant. This requires, according to Equation 10.10, that the angular speed vary as the laser–lens system moves radially along the disc. In a typical compact disc
player, the constant speed of the sur face at the point of the
laser–lens system is 1.3 m/s.
(A) Find the angular speed of the disc in revolutions per
minute when information is being read from the innermost
ﬁrst track (r 23 mm) and the outermost ﬁnal track
(r 58 mm).
Solution Using Equation 10.10, we can ﬁnd the angular
speed that will give us the required tangential speed at the
position of the inner track,
i v
ri 1.3 m/s
2.3 10 2 m (57 rad/s)
5.4 1 rev
2 rad 23 mm 58 mm George Semple Example 10.2 Figure 10.6 (Example 10.2) A compact disc.
f
1
(57
2 102 rev/min rad/s f)t 22 rad/s)(4 473 s) 105 rad 1.8 We convert this angular displacement to revolutions:
1.8 57 rad/s
60 s
1 min 1
(i
2 i 105 rad 1 rev
2 rad 2.8 v
rf
2.1 1.3 m/s
5.8 10 2 m
102 104 rev (C) What total length of track moves past the objective lens
during this time?
Solution Because we know the (constant) linear velocity
and the time interval, this is a straightforward calculation: For the outer track,
f 299 xf vit (1.3 m/s)(4 473 s) 5.8 103 m 22 rad/s rev/min The player adjusts the angular speed
of the disc within
this range so that information moves past the objective lens
at a constant rate.
(B) The maximum playing time of a standard music CD is
74 min and 33 s. How many revolutions does the disc make
during that time?
Solution We know that the angular speed is always decreasing, and we assume that it is decreasing steadily, with constant. If t 0 is the instant that the disc begins, with angular
speed of 57 rad/s, then the ﬁnal value of the time t is
(74 min)(60 s/min) 33 s 4 473 s. We are looking for
the angular displacement
during this time interval. We
use Equation 10.9: More than 5.8 km of track spins past the objective lens!
(D) What is the angular acceleration of the CD over the
4 473s time interval? Assume that is constant.
Solution The most direct approach to solving this problem
is to use Equation 10.6 and the results to part (A). We should
obtain a negative number for the angular acceleration because the disc spins more and more slowly in the positive direction as time goes on. Our answer should also be relatively
small because it takes such a long time—more than an
hour—for the change in angular speed to be accomplished:
f 22 rad/s 57 rad/s
4 473 s i t
7.8 10 3 rad/s2 The disc experiences a very gradual decrease in its rotation
rate, as expected. 300 C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis z axis v
vi
mi
ri O Figure 10.7 A rigid object rotating
about the z axis with angular speed
. The kinetic energy of the
particle of mass mi is 1 m ivi 2. The
2
total kinetic energy of the object is
called its rotational kinetic energy. 10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy In Chapter 7, we deﬁned the kinetic energy of an object as the energy associated with
its motion through space. An object rotating about a ﬁxed axis remains stationary in
space, so there is no kinetic energy associated with translational motion. The individual particles making up the rotating object, however, are moving through space—they
follow circular paths. Consequently, there should be kinetic energy associated with rotational motion.
Let us consider an object as a collection of particles and assume that it rotates
about a ﬁxed z axis with an angular speed . Figure 10.7 shows the rotating object and
identiﬁes one particle on the object located at a distance ri from the rotation axis. Each
such particle has kinetic energy determined by its mass and tangential speed. If the
mass of the ith particle is mi and its tangential speed is vi , its kinetic energy is
1
mv2
2 ii Ki To proceed further, recall that although every particle in the rigid object has the same
angular speed , the individual tangential speeds depend on the distance ri from the
axis of rotation according to the expression vi ri (see Eq. 10.10). The total kinetic
energy of the rotating rigid object is the sum of the kinetic energies of the individual
particles:
KR i Ki i 1
mv2
2 ii 1
2 i m i ri 2 2 We can write this expression in the form
1
2 KR i m i ri 2 2 (10.14) where we have factored 2 from the sum because it is common to every particle. We simplify this expression by deﬁning the quantity in parentheses as the moment of inertia I:
I Moment of inertia i m i ri 2 (10.15) From the deﬁnition of moment of inertia, we see that it has dimensions of ML2
(kg · m2 in SI units).2 With this notation, Equation 10.14 becomes
KR Rotational kinetic energy L PITFALL PR EVE NTI O N 10.4 No Single Moment
of Inertia
There is one major difference between mass and moment of inertia. Mass is an inherent property
of an object. The moment of
inertia of an object depends
on your choice of rotation axis.
Thus, there is no single value of
the moment of inertia for an
object. There is a minimum value
of the moment of inertia, which
is that calculated about an axis
passing through the center of
mass of the object. 1
I2
2 (10.16) Although we commonly refer to the quantity 1 I 2 as rotational kinetic energy, it is
2
not a new form of energy. It is ordinary kinetic energy because it is derived from a
sum over individual kinetic energies of the particles contained in the rigid object.
However, the mathematical form of the kinetic energy given by Equation 10.16 is
convenient when we are dealing with rotational motion, provided we know how to
calculate I.
It is important that you recognize the analogy between kinetic energy associated
with linear motion 1 mv 2 and rotational kinetic energy 1 I 2 . The quantities I and in
2
2
rotational motion are analogous to m and v in linear motion, respectively. (In fact, I
takes the place of m and takes the place of v every time we compare a linearmotion
equation with its rotational counterpart.) The moment of inertia is a measure of the
resistance of an object to changes in its rotational motion, just as mass is a measure of
the tendency of an object to resist changes in its linear motion.
2 Civil engineers use moment of inertia to characterize the elastic properties (rigidity) of such
structures as loaded beams. Hence, it is often useful even in a nonrotational context. S E C T I O N 1 0 . 4 • Rotational Kinetic Energy 301 Quick Quiz 10.7 A section of hollow pipe and a solid cylinder have the
same radius, mass, and length. They both rotate about their long central axes with
the same angular speed. Which object has the higher rotational kinetic energy? (a) the
hollow pipe (b) the solid cylinder (c) they have the same rotational kinetic energy
(d) impossible to determine. Example 10.3 The Oxygen Molecule Consider an oxygen molecule (O2) rotating in the xy plane
about the z axis. The rotation axis passes through the center
of the molecule, perpendicular to its length. The mass of
each oxygen atom is 2.66 10 26 kg, and at room
temperature the average separation between the two atoms is
d 1.21 10 10 m. (The atoms are modeled as particles.)
(A) Calculate the moment of inertia of the molecule about
the z axis.
Solution This is a straightforward application of the deﬁnition of I. Because each atom is a distance d/2 from the z
axis, the moment of inertia about the axis is
I i m i ri 2 (2.66 Example 10.4 m
10 d
2
26 2 m kg)(1.21
2 d
2 2 10 10 kg m2 (B) If the angular speed of the molecule about the z
axis is 4.60 1012 rad/s, what is its rotational kinetic
energy?
Solution We apply the result we just calculated for the moment of inertia in the equation for KR:
1
I2
2
1
(1.95
2 10 2.06 KR 10 m)2 46
21 kg m2)(4.60 1012 rad/s)2 J Four Rotating Objects (A) If the system rotates about the y axis (Fig. 10.8a) with an
angular speed , ﬁnd the moment of inertia and the rotational kinetic energy about this axis.
Solution First, note that the two spheres of mass m, which
lie on the y axis, do not contribute to Iy (that is, ri 0 for
these spheres about this axis). Applying Equation 10.15, we
obtain
i m i ri 2 Ma 2 Ma 2 2Ma 2 Therefore, the rotational kinetic energy about the y axis is
KR 46 10 This is a very small number, consistent with the minuscule
masses and distances involved. md 2
2 Four tiny spheres are fastened to the ends of two rods of
negligible mass lying in the xy plane (Fig. 10.8). We shall assume that the radii of the spheres are small compared with
the dimensions of the rods. Iy 1.95 1
I2
2y 1
(2Ma 2) 2
2 Ma 2 2 The fact that the two spheres of mass m do not enter into
this result makes sense because they have no motion about
the axis of rotation; hence, they have no rotational kinetic
energy. By similar logic, we expect the moment of inertia
about the x axis to be Ix 2mb 2 with a rotational kinetic energy about that axis of KR mb 2 2. (B) Suppose the system rotates in the xy plane about an
axis (the z axis) through O (Fig. 10.8b). Calculate the moment of inertia and rotational kinetic energy about this
axis. Solution Because ri in Equation 10.15 is the distance between a sphere and the axis of rotation, we obtain
Iz
KR i m i ri 2 1
I2
2z Ma 2
1
(2Ma 2
2 Ma 2 mb 2 2mb 2) 2 mb 2
(Ma2 2Ma 2
mb 2) 2mb 2
2 Comparing the results for parts (A) and (B), we conclude that the moment of inertia and therefore the rotational kinetic energy associated with a given angular speed
depend on the axis of rotation. In part (B), we expect the
result to include all four spheres and distances because all
four spheres are rotating in the xy plane. Furthermore,
the fact that the rotational kinetic energy in part (A) is
smaller than that in part (B) indicates, based on the
work–kinetic energy theorem, that it would require less
work to set the system into rotation about the y axis than
about the z axis. 302 C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis What If? What if the mass M is much larger than m ? How which are the same as the answers in part (A). If the masses
m of the two red spheres in Figure 10.8 are negligible, then
these spheres can be removed from the ﬁgure and rotations
about the y and z axes are equivalent. do the answers to parts (A) and (B) compare? Answer If M
m, then m can be neglected and the
moment of inertia and rotational kinetic energy in part
(B) become
Iz 2Ma 2 and KR Ma 2 2 y m
b m M M
a a M
b x a b
O m a b M m
(b) (a) Figure 10.8 (Example 10.4) Four spheres form an unusual baton. (a) The baton is
rotated about the y axis. (b) The baton is rotated about the z axis. 10.5 Calculation of Moments of Inertia We can evaluate the moment of inertia of an extended rigid object by imagining the
object to be divided into many small volume elements, each of which has mass mi. We
use the deﬁnition I
r i 2 m i and take the limit of this sum as mi : 0. In this limit,
i the sum becomes an integral over the volume of the object:
Moment of inertia of a rigid
object I lim mi : 0 i ri 2 m i r 2 dm (10.17) It is usually easier to calculate moments of inertia in terms of the volume of the elements rather than their mass, and we can easily make that change by using Equation 1.1,
m/V, where is the density of the object and V is its volume. From this equation, the
mass of a small element is dm
dV. Substituting this result into Equation 10.17 gives
I r 2 dV If the object is homogeneous, then is constant and the integral can be evaluated for a
known geometry. If is not constant, then its variation with position must be known to
complete the integration.
m/V sometimes is referred to as volumetric mass density beThe density given by
cause it represents mass per unit volume. Often we use other ways of expressing density. For instance, when dealing with a sheet of uniform thickness t, we can deﬁne a surt, which represents mass per unit area. Finally, when mass is
face mass density
distributed along a rod of uniform crosssectional area A, we sometimes use linear mass
M/L
A, which is the mass per unit length.
density S E C T I O N 1 0 . 5 • Calculation of Moments of Inertia Example 10.5 Uniform Thin Hoop
y Find the moment of inertia of a uniform thin hoop of mass
M and radius R about an axis perpendicular to the plane of
the hoop and passing through its center (Fig. 10.9). dm Solution Because the hoop is thin, all mass elements dm
are the same distance r R from the axis, and so, applying
Equation 10.17, we obtain for the moment of inertia about
the z axis through O :
r 2 dm Iz R2 x O R MR 2 dm Note that this moment of inertia is the same as that of a single particle of mass M located a distance R from the axis of
rotation.
Example 10.6 Figure 10.9 (Example 10.5) The mass elements dm of a
uniform hoop are all the same distance from O. Uniform Rigid Rod Calculate the moment of inertia of a uniform rigid rod of
length L and mass M (Fig. 10.10) about an axis perpendicular
to the rod (the y axis) and passing through its center of mass. y′ y Solution The shaded length element dx in Figure 10.10 has a
mass dm equal to the mass per unit length multiplied by dx :
dm dx M
dx
L dx x
O Substituting this expression for dm into Equation 10.17, with
r 2 x 2, we obtain
Iy L/2 r 2 dm
M
L Example 10.7 303 x3
3 L/2
L/2 x2 M
dx
L 1
12 L/2 L/2 M
L L/2 x
L x 2 dx Figure 10.10 (Example 10.6) A uniform rigid rod of
length L. The moment of inertia about the y axis is less than
that about the y axis. The latter axis is examined in
Example 10.8. ML2 Uniform Solid Cylinder A uniform solid cylinder has a radius R, mass M, and length
L. Calculate its moment of inertia about its central axis (the
z axis in Fig. 10.11). z
dr
r Solution It is convenient to divide the cylinder into many
cylindrical shells, each of which has radius r, thickness dr,
and length L, as shown in Figure 10.11. The volume dV of
each shell is its crosssectional area multiplied by its length:
dV LdA L(2 r)dr. If the mass per unit volume is , then
the mass of this differential volume element is dm
dV 2 Lr dr. Substituting this expression for dm into
Equation 10.17, we obtain
Iz r 2 dm r 2(2 Lr dr) 2 L R
0 r 3dr 1
2 LR 4 Because the total volume of the cylinder is R 2L, we see that
M/V M/ R 2L. Substituting this value for into the
above result gives
Iz 1
MR 2
2 R
L Figure 10.11 (Example 10.7) Calculating I about the z axis for
a uniform solid cylinder. What If? What if the length of the cylinder in Figure 10.11 is
increased to 2L, while the mass M and radius R are held
ﬁxed? How does this change the moment of inertia of the
cylinder? 304 C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis Answer Note that the result for the moment of inertia of a
cylinder does not depend on L, the length of the cylinder.
In other words, it applies equally well to a long cylinder and a ﬂat disk having the same mass M and radius R. Thus, the
moment of inertia of the cylinder would not be affected by
changing its length. Table 10.2 gives the moments of inertia for a number of objects about speciﬁc axes.
The moments of inertia of rigid objects with simple geometry (high symmetry) are relatively easy to calculate provided the rotation axis coincides with an axis of symmetry.
The calculation of moments of inertia about an arbitrary axis can be cumbersome,
however, even for a highly symmetric object. Fortunately, use of an important theorem,
called the parallelaxis theorem, often simpliﬁes the calculation. Suppose the
moment of inertia about an axis through the center of mass of an object is ICM. The
parallelaxis theorem states that the moment of inertia about any axis parallel to and
a distance D away from this axis is
I Parallelaxis theorem ICM MD 2 (10.18) To prove the parallelaxis theorem, suppose that an object rotates in the xy plane
about the z axis, as shown in Figure 10.12, and that the coordinates of the center of
mass are x CM, yCM. Let the mass element dm have coordinates x, y. Because this Table 10.2
Moments of Inertia of Homogeneous Rigid Objects
with Different Geometries
Hoop or thin
cylindrical shell
I CM = MR 2 R Solid cylinder
or disk
I CM = 1 MR 2
2 R Hollow cylinder
I CM = 1 M(R 12 + R 22)
2 R1 Rectangular plate
I CM = 1 M(a 2 + b 2)
12
b
a Long thin rod
with rotation axis
through center
I CM = 1 ML 2
12 Long thin
rod with
rotation axis
through end L I = 1 ML 2
3 Solid sphere
I CM = 2 MR 2
5 Thin spherical
shell
I CM = 2 MR 2
3
R L R R2 S E C T I O N 1 0 . 5 • Calculation of Moments of Inertia y 305 dm
x, y
z y′ Rotation
axis r y
CM
yCM Axis
through
CM
y xCM, yCM CM O D
x O x x′ xCM
x (a) (b) Figure 10.12 (a) The parallelaxis theorem: if the moment of inertia about an axis
perpendicular to the ﬁgure through the center of mass is ICM, then the moment of
inertia about the z axis is Iz ICM MD 2. (b) Perspective drawing showing the z axis
(the axis of rotation) and the parallel axis through the CM. element is a distance r
z axis is √x 2
I y 2 from the z axis, the moment of inertia about the
r 2 dm (x 2 y 2)dm However, we can relate the coordinates x, y of the mass element dm to the coordinates of
this same element located in a coordinate system having the object’s center of mass as its
origin. If the coordinates of the center of mass are x CM, y CM in the original coordinate
system centered on O, then from Figure 10.12a we see that the relationships between the
yCM. Therefore,
unprimed and primed coordinates are x x
x CM and y y
I [(x
[(x )2 x CM)2 (y (y )2]dm yCM)2]dm
2x CM x dm 2yCM y dm (x CM2 yCM2) dm The ﬁrst integral is, by deﬁnition, the moment of inertia about an axis that is parallel
to the z axis and passes through the center of mass. The second two integrals are zero
y dm 0. The last integral is simbecause, by deﬁnition of the center of mass, x dm
ply MD 2 because dm M and D 2 x CM2 yCM2. Therefore, we conclude that
I
Example 10.8 ICM MD 2 Applying the ParallelAxis Theorem Consider once again the uniform rigid rod of mass M and
length L shown in Figure 10.10. Find the moment of inertia
of the rod about an axis perpendicular to the rod through
one end (the y axis in Fig. 10.10).
Solution Intuitively, we expect the moment of inertia to be
1
greater than I CM 12 ML 2 because there is mass up to a distance of L away from the rotation axis, while the farthest distance in Example 10.6 was only L/2. Because the distance between the centerofmass axis and the y axis is D
the parallelaxis theorem gives
I ICM MD 2 1
ML2
12 M L
2 2 L/2, 1
ML2
3 So, it is four times more difﬁcult to change the rotation of a
rod spinning about its end than it is to change the motion
of one spinning about its center. C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis 306 F sin φ F r φ
O r F cos φ
Line of
action φ d Figure 10.13 The force F has a
greater rotating tendency about O
as F increases and as the moment
arm d increases. The component
F sin tends to rotate the wrench
about O. L PITFALL PR EVE NTI O N 10.5 Torque Depends on
Your Choice of Axis
Like moment of inertia, there is
no unique value of the torque—
its value depends on your choice
of rotation axis. Moment arm F1 d1
O
d2 F2 Active Figure 10.14 The force F1
tends to rotate the object
counterclockwise about O, and F2
tends to rotate it clockwise.
At the Active Figures link
at http://www.pse6.com, you
can change the magnitudes,
directions, and points of
application of forces F1 and F2
to see how the object
accelerates under the action of
the two forces. 10.6 Torque Why are a door’s hinges and its doorknob placed near opposite edges of the door?
Imagine trying to rotate a door by applying a force of magnitude F perpendicular to
the door sur face but at various distances from the hinges. You will achieve a more
rapid rate of rotation for the door by applying the force near the doorknob than by applying it near the hinges.
If you cannot loosen a stubborn bolt with a socket wrench, what would you do in an
effort to loosen the bolt? You may intuitively try using a wrench with a longer handle or
slip a pipe over the existing wrench to make it longer. This is similar to the situation
with the door. You are more successful at causing a change in rotational motion (of the
door or the bolt) by applying the force farther away from the rotation axis.
When a force is exerted on a rigid object pivoted about an axis, the object tends to
rotate about that axis. The tendency of a force to rotate an object about some axis is
measured by a vector quantity called torque (Greek tau). Torque is a vector, but we
will consider only its magnitude here and explore its vector nature in Chapter 11.
Consider the wrench pivoted on the axis through O in Figure 10.13. The applied
force F acts at an angle to the horizontal. We deﬁne the magnitude of the torque associated with the force F by the expression
r F sin Fd (10.19) where r is the distance between the pivot point and the point of application of F and d
is the perpendicular distance from the pivot point to the line of action of F. (The line
of action of a force is an imaginary line extending out both ends of the vector representing the force. The dashed line extending from the tail of F in Figure 10.13 is part of
the line of action of F.) From the right triangle in Figure 10.13 that has the wrench as
its hypotenuse, we see that d r sin . The quantity d is called the moment arm (or
lever arm) of F.
In Figure 10.13, the only component of F that tends to cause rotation is F sin , the
component perpendicular to a line drawn from the rotation axis to the point of application of the force. The horizontal component F cos , because its line of action passes
through O, has no tendency to produce rotation about an axis passing through O.
From the deﬁnition of torque, we see that the rotating tendency increases as F increases and as d increases. This explains the observation that it is easier to rotate a
door if we push at the doorknob rather than at a point close to the hinge. We also want
to apply our push as closely perpendicular to the door as we can. Pushing sideways on
the doorknob will not cause the door to rotate.
If two or more forces are acting on a rigid object, as in Figure 10.14, each tends to
produce rotation about the axis at O. In this example, F2 tends to rotate the object
clockwise and F1 tends to rotate it counterclockwise. We use the convention that the
sign of the torque resulting from a force is positive if the turning tendency of the force
is counterclockwise and is negative if the turning tendency is clockwise. For example,
in Figure 10.14, the torque resulting from F1, which has a moment arm d1, is positive
and equal to F1d1; the torque from F2 is negative and equal to F2d 2. Hence, the net
torque about O is
1 2 F1d 1 F2d 2 Torque should not be confused with force. Forces can cause a change in linear
motion, as described by Newton’s second law. Forces can also cause a change in rotational motion, but the effectiveness of the forces in causing this change depends on
both the forces and the moment arms of the forces, in the combination that we call
torque. Torque has units of force times length—newton · meters in SI units—and should
be reported in these units. Do not confuse torque and work, which have the same units
but are very different concepts. S E C T I O N 1 0 . 7 • Relationship Between Torque and Angular Acceleration 307 Quick Quiz 10.8 If you are trying to loosen a stubborn screw from a piece
of wood with a screwdriver and fail, should you ﬁnd a screwdriver for which the handle
is (a) longer or (b) fatter?
Quick Quiz 10.9 If you are trying to loosen a stubborn bolt from a piece
of metal with a wrench and fail, should you ﬁnd a wrench for which the handle is
(a) longer (b) fatter? Example 10.9 The Net Torque on a Cylinder A onepiece cylinder is shaped as shown in Figure 10.15,
with a core section protruding from the larger drum. The
cylinder is free to rotate about the central axis shown in the
drawing. A rope wrapped around the drum, which has radius R1, exerts a force T1 to the right on the cylinder. A rope
wrapped around the core, which has radius R2, exerts a
force T2 downward on the cylinder. (B) Suppose T1 5.0 N, R1 1.0 m, T2 15.0 N, and
R2 0.50 m. What is the net torque about the rotation axis,
and which way does the cylinder rotate starting from rest? (A) What is the net torque acting on the cylinder about the
rotation axis (which is the z axis in Figure 10.15)? Because this torque is positive, the cylinder will begin to rotate in the counterclockwise direction. Solution Evaluating the net torque,
(15 N)(0.50 m) 1 2 T1 R1
R2
O R 1T1 We can make a quick check by noting that if the two forces
are of equal magnitude, the net torque is negative because
R1 R 2 . Starting from rest with both forces of equal magnitude acting on it, the cylinder would rotate clockwise because T1 would be more effective at turning it than would T2. 2.5 N m y Solution The torque due to T1 is R1T1. (The sign is
negative because the torque tends to produce clockwise rotation.) The torque due to T2 is R 2T2. (The sign is positive because the torque tends to produce counterclockwise
rotation.) Therefore, the net torque about the rotation
axis is
R 2T2 (5.0 N)(1.0 m) x z
T2 Figure 10.15 (Example 10.9) A solid cylinder pivoted about
the z axis through O. The moment arm of T1 is R1, and the
moment arm of T2 is R 2 . 10.7 Relationship Between Torque
and Angular Acceleration
In Chapter 4, we learned that a net force on an object causes an acceleration of the
object and that the acceleration is proportional to the net force (Newton’s second
law). In this section we show the rotational analog of Newton’s second law—the
angular acceleration of a rigid object rotating about a ﬁxed axis is proportional to
the net torque acting about that axis. Before discussing the more complex case of
rigidobject rotation, however, it is instructive ﬁrst to discuss the case of a particle
moving in a circular path about some ﬁxed point under the influence of an external
force. C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis 308 Consider a particle of mass m rotating in a circle of radius r under the inﬂuence of
a tangential force Ft and a radial force Fr , as shown in Figure 10.16. The tangential
force provides a tangential acceleration at, and Ft m Ft Fr mat The magnitude of the torque about the center of the circle due to Ft is r Ft r Figure 10.16 A particle rotating in
a circle under the inﬂuence of a
tangential force Ft . A force Fr in the
radial direction also must be present
to maintain the circular motion. (ma t)r Because the tangential acceleration is related to the angular acceleration through the
relationship at r (see Eq. 10.11), the torque can be expressed as
(mr 2) (mr )r Recall from Equation 10.15 that mr 2 is the moment of inertia of the particle about the
z axis passing through the origin, so that
I y That is, the torque acting on the particle is proportional to its angular acceleration, and the proportionality constant is the moment of inertia. Note that
I is the
rotational analog of Newton’s second law of motion, F ma.
Now let us extend this discussion to a rigid object of arbitrary shape rotating about
a ﬁxed axis, as in Figure 10.17. The object can be regarded as an inﬁnite number of
mass elements dm of inﬁnitesimal size. If we impose a Cartesian coordinate system on
the object, then each mass element rotates in a circle about the origin, and each has a
tangential acceleration at produced by an external tangential force d Ft . For any given
element, we know from Newton’s second law that d Ft
dm r
O (10.20) d Ft x (dm)a t The torque d associated with the force d Ft acts about the origin and is given by
Figure 10.17 A rigid object
rotating about an axis through O.
Each mass element dm rotates
about O with the same angular
acceleration , and the net torque
on the object is proportional to . d
Because at r d Ft a t r dm r , the expression for d becomes
d r 2 dm Although each mass element of the rigid object may have a different linear acceleration at , they all have the same angular acceleration . With this in mind, we can integrate
the above expression to obtain the net torque
about O due to the external forces:
r 2 dm r 2 dm where can be taken outside the integral because it is common to all mass elements.
From Equation 10.17, we know that r 2 dm is the moment of inertia of the object
becomes
about the rotation axis through O, and so the expression for
Torque is proportional to
angular acceleration I (10.21) Note that this is the same relationship we found for a particle moving in a circular path
(see Eq. 10.20). So, again we see that the net torque about the rotation axis is proportional to the angular acceleration of the object, with the proportionality factor being I,
a quantity that depends upon the axis of rotation and upon the size and shape of the
I is strikobject. In view of the complex nature of the system, the relationship
ingly simple and in complete agreement with experimental observations.
I also applies when the forces acting on the mass
Finally, note that the result
elements have radial components as well as tangential components. This is because the
line of action of all radial components must pass through the axis of rotation, and
hence all radial components produce zero torque about that axis. S E C T I O N 1 0 . 7 • Relationship Between Torque and Angular Acceleration 309 Quick Quiz 10.10 You turn off your electric drill and ﬁnd that the time interval for the rotating bit to come to rest due to frictional torque in the drill is t. You
replace the bit with a larger one that results in a doubling of the moment of inertia of
the entire rotating mechanism of the drill. When this larger bit is rotated at the same
angular speed as the ﬁrst and the drill is turned off, the frictional torque remains the
same as that for the previous situation. The time for this second bit to come to rest is
(a) 4 t (b) 2 t (c) t (d) 0.5 t (e) 0.25 t (f ) impossible to determine. Example 10.10 Rotating Rod A uniform rod of length L and mass M is attached at one
end to a frictionless pivot and is free to rotate about the
pivot in the vertical plane, as in Figure 10.18. The rod is released from rest in the horizontal position. What is the initial angular acceleration of the rod and the initial linear acceleration of its right end?
Solution We cannot use our kinematic equations to ﬁnd
or a because the torque exerted on the rod varies with its
angular position and so neither acceleration is constant. We
have enough information to ﬁnd the torque, however, which
we can then use in Equation 10.21 to ﬁnd the initial and
then the initial a.
The only force contributing to the torque about an axis
through the pivot is the gravitational force M g exerted on
the rod. (The force exerted by the pivot on the rod has zero
torque about the pivot because its moment arm is zero.) To
compute the torque on the rod, we assume that the gravitational force acts at the center of mass of the rod, as shown in
Figure 10.18. The magnitude of the torque due to this force
about an axis through the pivot is
Mg
With
I , and I
Table 10.2), we obtain 1
ML2
3 L
2
for this axis of rotation (see L Pivot
Mg Figure 10.18 (Example 10.10) A rod is free to rotate around a
pivot at the left end. What If? What if we were to place a penny on the end of
the rod and release the rod? Would the penny stay in contact
with the rod? Answer The result for the initial acceleration of a point
on the end of the rod shows that at g. A penny will fall at
acceleration g. This means that if we place a penny at the
end of the rod and then release the rod, the end of the rod
falls faster than the penny does! The penny does not stay
in contact with the rod. (Try this with a penny and a meter
stick!)
This raises the question as to the location on the rod at
which we can place a penny that will stay in contact as both
begin to fall. To ﬁnd the linear acceleration of an arbitrary
point on the rod at a distance r L from the pivot point, we
combine (1) with Equation 10.11:
at (1) Mg(L/2)
1
ML2
3 I 3g
2L All points on the rod have this initial angular acceleration.
To ﬁnd the initial linear acceleration of the right end of
the rod, we use the relationship at r (Eq. 10.11), with
r L: at L 3
g
2 3g
r
2L r For the penny to stay in contact with the rod, the limiting
case is that the linear acceleration must be equal to that due
to gravity:
at
r g 3g
r
2L 2
L
3 Thus, a penny placed closer to the pivot than two thirds of
the length of the rod will stay in contact with the falling rod
while a penny farther out than this point will lose contact. 310 C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis Conceptual Example 10.11 Falling Smokestacks and Tumbling Blocks When a tall smokestack falls over, it often breaks somewhere
along its length before it hits the ground, as shown in Figure
10.19. The same thing happens with a tall tower of children’s toy blocks. Why does this happen?
Solution As the smokestack rotates around its base, each
higher portion of the smokestack falls with a larger tangential acceleration than the portion below it. (The tangential
acceleration of a given point on the smokestack is proportional to the distance of that portion from the base.) As
the angular acceleration increases as the smokestack tips
farther, higher portions of the smokestack experience an
acceleration greater than that which could result from
gravity alone; this is similar to the situation described in
Example 10.10. This can happen only if these portions are
being pulled downward by a force in addition to the gravitational force. The force that causes this to occur is the
shear force from lower portions of the smokestack. Eventually the shear force that provides this acceleration is
greater than the smokestack can withstand, and the smokestack breaks.
Example 10.12 Figure 10.19 (Conceptual Example 10.11) A falling
smokestack breaks at some point along its length. Interactive Angular Acceleration of a Wheel A wheel of radius R , mass M, and moment of inertia I is
mounted on a frictionless horizontal axle, as in Figure 10.20.
A light cord wrapped around the wheel supports an object of
mass m. Calculate the angular acceleration of the wheel, the
linear acceleration of the object, and the tension in the cord.
M Solution The magnitude of the torque acting on the wheel
about its axis of rotation is
TR , where T is the force exerted by the cord on the rim of the wheel. (The gravitational force exerted by the Earth on the wheel and the normal force exerted by the axle on the wheel both pass
through the axis of rotation and thus produce no torque.)
Because
I , we obtain
I TR TR
I (1)
O Now let us apply Newton’s second law to the motion of the
object, taking the downward direction to be positive:
R Fy T (2) T m mg
mg a ma T
m Equations (1) and (2) have three unknowns: , a, and T.
Because the object and wheel are connected by a cord that
does not slip, the linear acceleration of the suspended
object is equal to the tangential acceleration of a point on
the rim of the wheel. Therefore, the angular acceleration
of the wheel and the linear acceleration of the object are
related by a R . Using this fact together with Equations
(1) and (2), we obtain
(3) a (4) T TR 2
I R mg Figure 10.20 (Example 10.12) An object hangs from a cord
wrapped around a wheel. T 1 mg mg
(mR 2/I ) T
m S E C T I O N 1 0 . 7 • Relationship Between Torque and Angular Acceleration Substituting Equation (4) into Equation (2) and solving for
a and , we ﬁnd that
(5) a We can show this mathematically by taking the limit
I : , so that Equation (5) becomes g
(I/mR 2 ) 1
a
R a 1 g
(I/mR 2 ) 0 9: This agrees with our conceptual conclusion that the object
will hang at rest. We also ﬁnd that Equation (4) becomes g
(I/mR) R 311 T What If? What if the wheel were to become very massive
so that I becomes very large? What happens to the acceleration a of the object and the tension T ? Answer If the wheel becomes inﬁnitely massive, we can
imagine that the object of mass m will simply hang from the
cord without causing the wheel to rotate. mg
(mR 2/I ) 1 mg 9: 1 0 mg This is consistent with the fact that the object simply hangs
at rest in equilibrium between the gravitational force and
the tension in the string. At the Interactive Worked Example link at http://www.pse6.com, you can change the masses of the object and the wheel
as well as the radius of the wheel to see the effect on how the system moves. Example 10.13 Interactive Atwood’s Machine Revisited Two blocks having masses m1 and m 2 are connected to each
other by a light cord that passes over two identical frictionless pulleys, each having a moment of inertia I and radius R,
as shown in Figure 10.21a. Find the acceleration of each
block and the tensions T1, T2, and T3 in the cord. (Assume
no slipping between cord and pulleys.)
Solution Compare this situation with the Atwood machine
of Example 5.9 (p. 129). The motion of m 1 and m 2 is similar
to the motion of the two blocks in that example. The primary differences are that in the present example we have
two pulleys and each of the pulleys has mass. Despite these
differences, the apparatus in the present example is indeed
an Atwood machine. T2
T1 T3 + T1
m1 (b) T2 T1 m1a m 2g m 2a (3) (T1 T2)R I (4) (T2 T3)R I We now have four equations with ﬁve unknowns: , a, T1,
T2, and T3. We also have a ﬁfth equation that relates the accelerations, a R . These equations can be solved simultaneously. Adding Equations (3) and (4) gives n2 T2 T3 T1 Next, we must include the effect of the pulleys on the
motion. Freebody diagrams for the pulleys are shown in Figure 10.21c. The net torque about the axle for the pulley on
the left is (T1 T2)R , while the net torque for the pulley on
the right is (T2 T3)R . Using the relation
I for each
pulley and noting that each pulley has the same angular acceleration , we obtain m1 g
m2g m1g (2) m2 (a) n1 (1) T3 m1 m2 + We shall deﬁne the downward direction as positive for
m1 and upward as the positive direction for m 2. This allows
us to represent the acceleration of both masses by a single
variable a and also enables us to relate a positive a to a positive (counterclockwise) angular acceleration
of the pulleys. Let us write Newton’s second law of motion for each
block, using the freebody diagrams for the two blocks as
shown in Figure 10.21b: (5) (T1 T3)R 2I Adding Equations (1) and (2) gives
mp g mp g T3 (c) Figure 10.21 (Example 10.13) (a) Another look at Atwood’s
machine. (b) Freebody diagrams for the blocks. (c) Freebody
diagrams for the pulleys, where mp g represents the gravitational
force acting on each pulley. T3 T1 m1g (6) m 2g T1 (m1 m 2)a T3 (m1 m 2)g (m1 m 2)a Substituting Equation (6) into Equation (5), we have
[(m1 m 2)g (m1 m 2)a]R 2I C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis 312 Because
(m 1 a/R, this expression can be simpliﬁed to
m 2)g (m 1 m 2)a (7) 2I a a
R2 m1 m 1g m 1a m1 g m1 m 1(g
(m 1
m2 (m1
m2 a)
m 2)g
2(I/R 2) Similarly, from Equation (2),
T3 m 2g m 2a 2m 2g m1 2m 1m 2
m1 Ia
R2 (m 1 m 2)g
m 2 2(I/R 2) (m 1 m 2)(I/R 2)
g
m 2 2(I/R 2) What If? What if the pulleys become massless? Does this
reduce to a previously solved problem? Answer If the pulleys become massless, the system
should behave in the same way as the masslesspulley
Atwood machine that we investigated in Example 5.9. The
only difference is the existence of two pulleys instead
of one.
Mathematically, if I : 0, Equation (7) becomes
a m1 (m 1 m 2)g
m 2 2(I/R 2) a 9: m1
m1 m2
m2 g which is the same result as Equation (3) in Example 5.9. Although the expressions for the three tensions in the present
example are different from each other, all three expressions
become, in the limit I : 0, m 1 (I/R 2)
m 1 m 2 2(I/R 2) Finally, T2 can be found from Equation (3): T1 m 2 (I/R 2)
m 1 m 2 2(I/R 2) I
R2 m2)g
2(I/R 2) m 2 (I/R 2)
m 1 m 2 2(I/R 2) 2m 1g I
R T1
2m 1g Note that if m1 m 2 , the acceleration is positive; this
means that the left block accelerates downward, the right
block accelerates upward, and both pulleys accelerate
counterclockwise. If m1 m 2 , the acceleration is negative
and the motions are reversed. If m1 m 2, no acceleration
occurs at all. You should compare these results with those
found in Example 5.9.
The expression for a can be substituted into Equations
(1) and (2) to give T1 and T3. From Equation (1),
T1 T2 T 2m 1m 2
m1 m2 g which is the same as Equation (4) in Example 5.9. At the Interactive Worked Example link at http://www.pse6.com, you can change the masses of the blocks and the pulleys to see the effect on the motion of the system. 10.8 Work, Power, and Energy
in Rotational Motion F φ
ds
dθ P r O Figure 10.22 A rigid object rotates
about an axis through O under the
action of an external force F
applied at P. Up to this point in our discussion of rotational motion in this chapter, we focused
on an approach involving force, leading to a description of torque on a rigid object.
We now see how an energy approach can be useful to us in solving rotational
problems.
We begin by considering the relationship between the torque acting on a rigid object and its resulting rotational motion in order to generate expressions for power and
a rotational analog to the work–kinetic energy theorem. Consider the rigid object pivoted at O in Figure 10.22. Suppose a single external force F is applied at P, where F lies
in the plane of the page. The work done by F on the object as it rotates through an inﬁnitesimal distance ds r d is
dW F ds (F sin )r d where F sin is the tangential component of F, or, in other words, the component of
the force along the displacement. Note that the radial component of F does no work because
it is perpendicular to the displacement. S E C T I O N 1 0 . 8 • Work, Power, and Energy in Rotational Motion Because the magnitude of the torque due to F about O is deﬁned as r F sin
Equation 10.19, we can write the work done for the inﬁnitesimal rotation as
dW 313 by (10.22) d The rate at which work is being done by F as the object rotates about the ﬁxed axis
through the angle d in a time interval dt is
dW
dt d
dt Because dW/dt is the instantaneous power
and d /dt
, this expression reduces to (see Section 7.8) delivered by the force dW
dt (10.23) Power delivered to a rotating
rigid object This expression is analogous to
Fv in the case of linear motion, and the expression dW
d is analogous to dW Fx dx.
In studying linear motion, we found the energy approach extremely useful in describing the motion of a system. From what we learned of linear motion, we expect that
when a symmetric object rotates about a ﬁxed axis, the work done by external forces
equals the change in the rotational energy.
I . Using the chain rule
To show that this is in fact the case, let us begin with
from calculus, we can express the resultant torque as
I I d
dt I d
d Rearranging this expression and noting that
d dW d
dt d I d
d dW, we obtain Id Integrating this expression, we obtain for the total work done by the net external force
acting on a rotating system
W f Id i where the angular speed changes from i to
theorem for rotational motion states that 1
I2
2f f. 1
I2
2i (10.24) That is, the work–kinetic energy the net work done by external forces in rotating a symmetric rigid object about a
ﬁxed axis equals the change in the object’s rotational energy.
In general, then, combining this with the translational form of the work–kinetic energy theorem from Chapter 7, the net work done by external forces on an object is
the change in its total kinetic energy, which is the sum of the translational and rotational kinetic energies. For example, when a pitcher throws a baseball, the work
done by the pitcher’s hands appears as kinetic energy associated with the ball moving through space as well as rotational kinetic energy associated with the spinning
of the ball.
In addition to the work–kinetic energy theorem, other energy principles can also
be applied to rotational situations. For example, if a system involving rotating objects is
isolated, the principle of conservation of energy can be used to analyze the system, as
in Example 10.14 below.
Table 10.3 lists the various equations we have discussed pertaining to rotational motion, together with the analogous expressions for linear motion. The last two equations
in Table 10.3, involving angular momentum L, are discussed in Chapter 11 and are included here only for the sake of completeness. Work–kinetic energy theorem
for rotational motion 314 C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis Table 10.3
Useful Equations in Rotational and Linear Motion
Rotational Motion About a Fixed Axis Linear Motion Angular speed
d /dt
d /dt
Angular acceleration
Net torque
If
f
i
t
1
constant
t2
f
i
it
2
2
2
2(f
f
i Linear speed v dx/dt
Linear acceleration a dv/dt
Net force F ma
If
vf vi at
a constant
xf xi vi t 1 at 2
2
vf 2 vi 2 2a(x f x i ) f Work W d i) Work W i Rotational kinetic energy KR
Power
Angular momentum L
dL/dt
Net torque 1
2 2 xf
xi Fx dx Kinetic energy K 1 mv 2
2
Power
Fv
Linear momentum p mv
Net force F dp/dt Quick Quiz 10.11 A rod is attached to the shaft of a motor at the center of
the rod so that the rod is perpendicular to the shaft, as in Figure 10.23a. The motor is
turned on and per forms work W on the rod, accelerating it to an angular speed . The
system is brought to rest, and the rod is attached to the shaft of the motor at one end
of the rod as in Figure 10.23b. The motor is turned on and per forms work W on the
rod. The angular speed of the rod in the second situation is (a) 4 (b) 2 (c)
(d) 0.5 (e) 0.25 (f) impossible to determine. (a) (b) Figure 10.23 (Quick Quiz 10.11) (a) A rod is rotated about its midpoint by a motor.
(b) The rod is rotated about one of its ends. Example 10.14 Rotating Rod Revisited A uniform rod of length L and mass M is free to rotate on a
frictionless pin passing through one end (Fig 10.24). The
rod is released from rest in the horizontal position.
(A) What is its angular speed when it reaches its lowest
position?
Solution To conceptualize this problem, consider Figure
10.24 and imagine the rod rotating downward through a Interactive
quarter turn about the pivot at the left end. In this situation, the angular acceleration of the rod is not constant.
Thus, the kinematic equations for rotation (Section 10.2)
cannot be used to solve this problem. As we found
with translational motion, however, an energy approach
can make such a seemingly insoluble problem relatively
easy. We categorize this as a conser vation of energy
problem. S E C T I O N 1 0 . 8 • Work, Power, and Energy in Rotational Motion Ei = U = MgL/2 O 12
I
2 11
( ML2) 2
23 0 √
1
Ef = KR = – Iω 2
2 Figure 10.24 (Example 10.14) A uniform rigid rod pivoted at
O rotates in a vertical plane under the action of the
gravitational force. To analyze the problem, we consider the mechanical
energy of the system of the rod and the Earth. We choose
the conﬁguration in which the rod is hanging straight down
as the reference conﬁguration for gravitational potential
energy and assign a value of zero for this conﬁguration.
When the rod is in the horizontal position, it has no rotational kinetic energy. The potential energy of the system in
this conﬁguration relative to the reference conﬁguration is
MgL/2 because the center of mass of the rod is at a height
L/2 higher than its position in the reference conﬁguration.
When the rod reaches its lowest position, the energy is entirely rotational energy 1 2, where I is the moment of iner2
tia about the pivot, and the potential energy of the system is
1
2 (see Table 10.2) and because the
zero. Because I 3 ML
system is isolated with no nonconservative forces acting, we
apply conservation of mechanical energy for the system:
Uf 3g
L (B) Determine the tangential speed of the center of mass
and the tangential speed of the lowest point on the rod
when it is in the vertical position. O′ Kf 1
MgL
2 0 L/2 315 Ki Ui Solution These two values can be determined from the relationship between tangential and angular speeds. We know
from part (A), and so the tangential speed of the center
of mass is v CM L
2 r 1
√3gL
2 Because r for the lowest point on the rod is twice what it is
for the center of mass, the lowest point has a tangential
speed v equal to
v √3gL 2v CM To ﬁnalize this problem, note that the initial conﬁguration
in this example is the same as that in Example 10.10. In Example 10.10, however, we could only ﬁnd the initial angular
acceleration of the rod. We cannot use this and the kinematic equations to ﬁnd the angular speed of the rod at its
lowest point because the angular acceleration is not constant. Applying an energy approach in the current example
allows us to ﬁnd something that we cannot in Example 10.10. At the Interactive Worked Example link at http://www.pse6.com, you can alter the mass and length of the rod and see the
effect on the velocity at the lowest point. Example 10.15 Energy and the Atwood Machine Consider two cylinders having different masses m1 and m2,
connected by a string passing over a pulley, as shown in
Figure 10.25. The pulley has a radius R and moment of inertia I about its axis of rotation. The string does not slip on
the pulley, and the system is released from rest. Find the
linear speeds of the cylinders after cylinder 2 descends
through a distance h, and the angular speed of the pulley
at this time.
Solution We will solve this problem by applying energy
methods to an Atwood machine with a massive pulley. Because the string does not slip, the pulley rotates about the
axle. We can neglect friction in the axle because the axle’s
radius is small relative to that of the pulley, so the frictional
torque is much smaller than the torque applied by the two
cylinders, provided that their masses are quite different.
Consequently, the system consisting of the two cylinders, the
pulley, and the Earth is isolated with no nonconservative
forces acting; thus, the mechanical energy of the system is
conserved.
We deﬁne the zero conﬁguration for gravitational potential energy as that which exists when the system is re leased. From Figure 10.25, we see that the descent of cylinder 2 is associated with a decrease in system potential energy and the rise of cylinder 1 represents an increase in R m2 h
m1 h Figure 10.25 (Example 10.15) An Atwood machine. 316 C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis potential energy. Because Ki
rest), we have 0 (the system is initially at
Kf (1m 1vf 2
2 1
m v2
2 2f 1
I f 2)
2 (m 1gh Uf m 2gh) where vf is the same for both blocks. Because vf
expression becomes
1
m v2
2 1f
1
2 1
m v2
2 2f m1 1
2 m2 Ki
0 Ui (m 2gh
(m 2gh 1/2 The angular speed of the pulley at this instant is m 1gh) I
R2 2(m 2 m 1)gh
[m 1 m 2 (I/R 2)] vf 0 R f , this I
v2
R2 f Solving for vf , we ﬁnd vf
R 1
R 2(m 2 m 1)gh
(m 1 m 2 (I/R 2)) 1/2 m 1gh) vf 2 10.9 f Rolling Motion of a Rigid Object In this section we treat the motion of a rigid object rolling along a flat sur face. In
general, such motion is ver y complex. Suppose, for example, that a cylinder is
rolling on a straight path such that the axis of rotation remains parallel to its initial
orientation in space. As Figure 10.26 shows, a point on the rim of the cylinder
moves in a complex path called a cycloid. However, we can simplify matters by focusing on the center of mass rather than on a point on the rim of the rolling object. As
we see in Figure 10.26, the center of mass moves in a straight line. If an object such
as a cylinder rolls without slipping on the sur face (we call this pure rolling motion), we
can show that a simple relationship exists between its rotational and translational
motions.
Consider a uniform cylinder of radius R rolling without slipping on a horizontal
sur face (Fig. 10.27). As the cylinder rotates through an angle , its center of mass
moves a linear distance s R (see Eq. 10.1a). Therefore, the linear speed of the center of mass for pure rolling motion is given by L PITFALL PR EVE NTI O N vCM 10.6 Equation 10.25 Looks
Familiar R d
dt R (10.25) where is the angular speed of the cylinder. Equation 10.25 holds whenever a cylinder or sphere rolls without slipping and is the condition for pure rolling motion. Henry Leap and Jim Lehman Equation 10.25 looks very similar to Equation 10.10, so be sure
that you are clear on the difference. Equation 10.10 gives the
tangential speed of a point on a
rotating object located a distance
r from the rotation axis if the
object is rotating with angular
speed . Equation 10.25 gives
the translational speed of the
center of mass of a rolling object
of radius R rotating with angular
speed . ds
dt Figure 10.26 One light source at the center of a rolling cylinder and another at one
point on the rim illustrate the different paths these two points take. The center moves
in a straight line (green line), while the point on the rim moves in the path called a
cycloid (red curve). S E C T I O N 1 0 . 9 • Rolling Motion of a Rigid Object R θ 317 s Figure 10.27 For pure rolling motion, as
the cylinder rotates through an angle , its center
moves a linear distance s R . s = Rθ The magnitude of the linear acceleration of the center of mass for pure rolling
motion is
a CM dvCM
dt R d
dt R (10.26) where is the angular acceleration of the cylinder.
The linear velocities of the center of mass and of various points on and within the
cylinder are illustrated in Figure 10.28. A short time after the moment shown in
the drawing, the rim point labeled P might rotate from the six o’clock position to, say,
the seven o’clock position, while the point Q would rotate from the ten o’clock position to the eleven o’clock position, and so on. Note that the linear velocity of any point
is in a direction perpendicular to the line from that point to the contact point P. At
any instant, the part of the rim that is at point P is at rest relative to the sur face because
slipping does not occur.
All points on the cylinder have the same angular speed. Therefore, because the distance from P to P is twice the distance from P to the center of mass, P has a speed
2vCM 2R . To see why this is so, let us model the rolling motion of the cylinder in Figure 10.29 as a combination of translational (linear) motion and rotational motion. For
the pure translational motion shown in Figure 10.29a, imagine that the cylinder does
not rotate, so that each point on it moves to the right with speed vCM. For the pure rotational motion shown in Figure 10.29b, imagine that a rotation axis through the center
of mass is stationary, so that each point on the cylinder has the same angular speed .
The combination of these two motions represents the rolling motion shown in Figure
10.29c. Note in Figure 10.29c that the top of the cylinder has linear speed
vCM vCM 2vCM, which is greater than the linear speed of any other
vCM R
point on the cylinder. As mentioned earlier, the center of mass moves with linear speed
vCM while the contact point between the sur face and cylinder has a linear speed of zero.
We can express the total kinetic energy of the rolling cylinder as
K 1
I
2P 2 P′ Q 2vCM vCM CM P Figure 10.28 All points on a
rolling object move in a direction
perpendicular to an axis through
the instantaneous point of contact
P. In other words, all points rotate
about P. The center of mass of the
object moves with a velocity vCM,
and the point P moves with a
velocity 2vCM. (10.27) where IP is the moment of inertia about a rotation axis through P. Applying the
parallelaxis theorem, we can substitute IP ICM MR 2 into Equation 10.27 to obtain
K
or, because vCM 1
I
2 CM 2 1
MR 2
2 K 1
I
2 CM 2 1
MvCM2
2 2 R,
(10.28) Total kinetic energy of a rolling
object C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis 318 P′ P′ v CM v CM CM v=0 CM v = Rω v CM P (a) Pure translation v = Rω P
(b) Pure rotation P′ v = v CM + Rω = 2v CM v = v CM CM
v=0 P (c) Combination of translation and rotation Figure 10.29 The motion of a rolling object can be modeled as a combination of pure
translation and pure rotation. M
R h ω x θ vCM Active Figure 10.30 A sphere
rolling down an incline.
Mechanical energy of the
sphere–incline–Earth system is
conserved if no slipping occurs. At the Active Figures link
at http://www.pse6.com, you
can roll several objects down
the hill and see how the ﬁnal
speed depends on the type of
object. The term 1 I CM 2 represents the rotational kinetic energy of the cylinder about its center
2
of mass, and the term 1 Mv CM 2 represents the kinetic energy the cylinder would have if it
2
were just translating through space without rotating. Thus, we can say that the total
kinetic energy of a rolling object is the sum of the rotational kinetic energy about
the center of mass and the translational kinetic energy of the center of mass.
We can use energy methods to treat a class of problems concerning the rolling motion of an object down a rough incline. For example, consider Figure 10.30, which
shows a sphere rolling without slipping after being released from rest at the top of the
incline. Note that accelerated rolling motion is possible only if a friction force is present between the sphere and the incline to produce a net torque about the center of
mass. Despite the presence of friction, no loss of mechanical energy occurs because the
contact point is at rest relative to the sur face at any instant. (On the other hand, if the
sphere were to slip, mechanical energy of the sphere–incline–Earth system would be
lost due to the nonconservative force of kinetic friction.)
Using the fact that vCM R for pure rolling motion, we can express Equation
10.28 as
vCM 2 1
1
K
I
MvCM 2
2 CM
2
R
K 1
2 ICM
R2 M vCM 2 (10.29) For the system of the sphere and the Earth, we deﬁne the zero conﬁguration of gravitational potential energy to be when the sphere is at the bottom of the incline. Thus,
conservation of mechanical energy gives us
Kf
1
2 ICM
R2 M vCM2 Uf Ki Ui 0 0 Mgh vCM 1 2gh
(ICM/MR 2) 1/2 (10.30) Summary 319 Quick Quiz 10.12 A ball rolls without slipping down incline A, starting
from rest. At the same time, a box starts from rest and slides down incline B, which is
identical to incline A except that it is frictionless. Which arrives at the bottom ﬁrst?
(a) the ball (b) the box (c) Both arrive at the same time. (d) impossible to determine
Quick Quiz 10.13 Two solid spheres roll down an incline, starting from rest.
Sphere A has twice the mass and twice the radius of sphere B. Which arrives at the bottom ﬁrst? (a) sphere A (b) sphere B (c) Both arrive at the same time. (d) impossible to
determine Quick Quiz 10.14 Two spheres roll down an incline, starting from rest.
Sphere A has the same mass and radius as sphere B, but sphere A is solid while sphere
B is hollow. Which arrives at the bottom ﬁrst? (a) sphere A (b) sphere B (c) Both arrive
at the same time. (d) impossible to determine Example 10.16 Sphere Rolling Down an Incline For the solid sphere shown in Figure 10.30, calculate the linear speed of the center of mass at the bottom of the incline
and the magnitude of the linear acceleration of the center
of mass.
Solution For a uniform solid sphere, ICM
Table 10.2), and therefore Equation 10.30 gives
v CM 1 2gh
(2 MR 2/MR 2)
5 1/2 2
MR 2
5 (see (10 gh)1/2
7 Notice that this is less than √2gh , which is the speed an object would have if it simply slid down the incline without rotating (see Example 8.7).
To calculate the linear acceleration of the center of
mass, we note that the vertical displacement is related to the
displacement x along the incline through the relationship
h x sin . Hence, after squaring both sides, we can express
the equation above as
v CM 2 10
gx
7 sin Comparing this with the expression from kinematics,
vCM2 2a CMx (see Eq. 2.13), we see that the acceleration of
the center of mass is
a CM 5
g
7 sin These results are interesting because both the speed and
the acceleration of the center of mass are independent of the
mass and the radius of the sphere! That is, all homogeneous solid spheres experience the same speed and acceleration on a given incline, as we argued in the answer to
Quick Quiz 10.13.
If we were to repeat the acceleration calculation for a
hollow sphere, a solid cylinder, or a hoop, we would obtain similar results in which only the factor in front of
g sin would differ. The constant factors that appear in
the expressions for vCM and a CM depend only on the moment of inertia about the center of mass for the speciﬁc
object. In all cases, the acceleration of the center of mass
is less than g sin , the value the acceleration would have if
the incline were frictionless and no rolling occurred. S U M MARY
If a particle moves in a circular path of radius r through an angle (measured in radians), the arc length it moves through is s r .
The angular position of a rigid object is deﬁned as the angle between a reference line attached to the object and a reference line ﬁxed in space. The angular displacement of a particle moving in a circular path or a rigid object rotating about a
ﬁxed axis is
f
i. Take a practice test for
this chapter by clicking on
the Practice Test link at
http://www.pse6.com. 320 C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis The instantaneous angular speed of a particle moving in a circular path or of a
rigid object rotating about a ﬁxed axis is
d
dt (10.3) The instantaneous angular acceleration of a particle moving in a circular path
or a rotating rigid object is
d
dt (10.5) When a rigid object rotates about a ﬁxed axis, every part of the object has the same angular speed and the same angular acceleration.
If an object rotates about a ﬁxed axis under constant angular acceleration, one can
apply equations of kinematics that are analogous to those for linear motion under constant linear acceleration:
f
f
f t i it 2( i 2 i f (10.6) 2 1
2
f 1
(i
2 i t2 (10.7)
i) (10.8) f)t (10.9) A useful technique in solving problems dealing with rotation is to visualize a linear version of the same problem.
When a rigid object rotates about a ﬁxed axis, the angular position, angular speed,
and angular acceleration are related to the linear position, linear speed, and linear acceleration through the relationships
s r (10.1a) v r (10.10) at r (10.11) The moment of inertia of a system of particles is deﬁned as
I i m iri 2 If a rigid object rotates about a ﬁxed axis with angular speed
netic energy can be written
KR 1
I
2 2 (10.15) , its rotational ki(10.16) where I is the moment of inertia about the axis of rotation.
The moment of inertia of a rigid object is
I r 2 dm (10.17) where r is the distance from the mass element dm to the axis of rotation.
The magnitude of the torque associated with a force F acting on an object is
Fd (10.19) where d is the moment arm of the force, which is the perpendicular distance from the
rotation axis to the line of action of the force. Torque is a measure of the tendency of
the force to change the rotation of the object about some axis.
If a rigid object free to rotate about a ﬁxed axis has a net external torque acting
on it, the object undergoes an angular acceleration , where
I (10.21) Questions 321 The rate at which work is done by an external force in rotating a rigid object about
a ﬁxed axis, or the power delivered, is
(10.23) If work is done on a rigid object and the only result of the work is rotation about a
ﬁxed axis, the net work done by external forces in rotating the object equals the
change in the rotational kinetic energy of the object:
W 1
I f2
2 1
I i2
2 (10.24) The total kinetic energy of a rigid object rolling on a rough sur face without slipping equals the rotational kinetic energy about its center of mass, 1 I CM 2, plus the
2
translational kinetic energy of the center of mass, 1 MvCM 2:
2
K 1
I
2 CM 2 1
MvCM 2
2 (10.28) QU ESTIONS
1. What is the angular speed of the second hand of a clock?
What is the direction of as you view a clock hanging on a
vertical wall? What is the magnitude of the angular acceleration vector of the second hand?
2. One blade of a pair of scissors rotates counterclockwise in
the xy plane. What is the direction of ? What is the direction of
if the magnitude of the angular velocity is decreasing in time?
3. Are the kinematic expressions for , , and valid when
the angular position is measured in degrees instead of in
radians?
4. If a car’s standard tires are replaced with tires of larger outside diameter, will the reading of the speedometer
change? Explain.
5. Suppose a b and M m for the system of particles described in Figure 10.8. About which axis (x, y, or z) does the
moment of inertia have the smallest value? the largest value?
6. Suppose that the rod in Figure 10.10 has a nonuniform
mass distribution. In general, would the moment of inertia
about the y axis still be equal to ML2/12? If not, could the
moment of inertia be calculated without knowledge of the
manner in which the mass is distributed?
7. Suppose that just two external forces act on a stationary
rigid object and the two forces are equal in magnitude and
opposite in direction. Under what condition does the object start to rotate?
8. Suppose a pencil is balanced on a per fectly frictionless
table. If it falls over, what is the path followed by the center
of mass of the pencil?
9. Explain how you might use the apparatus described in Example 10.12 to determine the moment of inertia of the
wheel. (If the wheel does not have a uniform mass density,
the moment of inertia is not necessarily equal to 1 MR 2.)
2
10. Using the results from Example 10.12, how would you calculate the angular speed of the wheel and the linear speed
of the suspended counterweight at t 2 s, if the system is
released from rest at t 0? Is the expression v R valid
in this situation? 11. If a small sphere of mass M were placed at the end of the
rod in Figure 10.24, would the result for be greater than,
less than, or equal to the value obtained in Example 10.14?
12. Explain why changing the axis of rotation of an object
changes its moment of inertia.
13. The moment of inertia of an object depends on the choice
of rotation axis, as suggested by the parallelaxis theorem.
Argue that an axis passing through the center of mass of
an object must be the axis with the smallest moment of
inertia.
14. Suppose you remove two eggs from the refrigerator, one
hardboiled and the other uncooked. You wish to determine which is the hardboiled egg without breaking the
eggs. This can be done by spinning the two eggs on the
ﬂoor and comparing the rotational motions. Which egg
spins faster? Which rotates more uniformly? Explain.
15. Which of the entries in Table 10.2 applies to ﬁnding the
moment of inertia of a long straight sewer pipe rotating
about its axis of symmetry? Of an embroidery hoop rotating about an axis through its center and perpendicular to
its plane? Of a uniform door turning on its hinges? Of a
coin turning about an axis through its center and perpendicular to its faces?
16. Is it possible to change the translational kinetic energy of
an object without changing its rotational energy?
17. Must an object be rotating to have a nonzero moment of
inertia?
18. If you see an object rotating, is there necessarily a net
torque acting on it?
19. Can a (momentarily) stationary object have a nonzero angular acceleration?
20. In a tape recorder, the tape is pulled past the readandwrite heads at a constant speed by the drive mechanism.
Consider the reel from which the tape is pulled. As the
tape is pulled from it, the radius of the roll of remaining
tape decreases. How does the torque on the reel change
with time? How does the angular speed of the reel change
in time? If the drive mechanism is switched on so that the 322 C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis an incline (Fig. Q10.24). They are all released from rest at
the same elevation and roll without slipping. Which object
reaches the bottom ﬁrst? Which reaches it last? Try this at
home and note that the result is independent of the
masses and the radii of the objects. tape is suddenly jerked with a large force, is the tape more
likely to break when it is being pulled from a nearly full
reel or from a nearly empty reel?
21. The polar diameter of the Earth is slightly less than the
equatorial diameter. How would the moment of inertia of
the Earth about its axis of rotation change if some mass
from near the equator were removed and transferred to
the polar regions to make the Earth a per fect sphere?
22. Suppose you set your textbook sliding across a gymnasium
ﬂoor with a certain initial speed. It quickly stops moving
because of a friction force exerted on it by the ﬂoor. Next,
you start a basketball rolling with the same initial speed. It
keeps rolling from one end of the gym to the other. Why
does the basketball roll so far? Does friction signiﬁcantly
affect its motion?
23. When a cylinder rolls on a horizontal surface as in Figure
10.28, do any points on the cylinder have only a vertical component of velocity at some instant? If so, where are they?
24. Three objects of uniform density—a solid sphere, a solid
cylinder, and a hollow cylinder—are placed at the top of Figure Q10.24 Which object wins the race? 25. In a soapbox derby race, the cars have no engines; they
simply coast down a hill to race with one another. Suppose
you are designing a car for a coasting race. Do you want to
use large wheels or small wheels? Do you want to use solid
disklike wheels or hooplike wheels? Should the wheels be
heavy or light? PROBLEMS
1, 2, 3 = straightforward, intermediate, challenging = full solution available in the Student Solutions Manual and Study Guide = coached solution with hints available at http://www.pse6.com = computer useful in solving problem = paired numerical and symbolic problems Section 10.1 Angular Position, Velocity,
and Acceleration
1. During a certain period of time, the angular position of a
swinging door is described by
5.00 10.0t 2.00t 2,
where is in radians and t is in seconds. Determine the angular position, angular speed, and angular acceleration of
the door (a) at t 0 (b) at t 3.00 s. Section 10.2 Rotational Kinematics: Rotational
Motion with Constant Angular
Acceleration
2. A dentist’s drill starts from rest. After 3.20 s of constant angular acceleration, it turns at a rate of 2.51 104 rev/min.
(a) Find the drill’s angular acceleration. (b) Determine
the angle (in radians) through which the drill rotates during this period.
3. A wheel starts from rest and rotates with constant angular
acceleration to reach an angular speed of 12.0 rad/s in
3.00 s. Find (a) the magnitude of the angular acceleration
of the wheel and (b) the angle in radians through which it
rotates in this time.
4. An airliner arrives at the terminal, and the engines are
shut off. The rotor of one of the engines has an initial
clockwise angular speed of 2 000 rad/s. The engine’s rotation slows with an angular acceleration of magnitude
80.0 rad/s2. (a) Determine the angular speed after 10.0 s.
(b) How long does it take the rotor to come to rest? 5. An electric motor rotating a grinding wheel at
100 rev/min is switched off. With constant negative angular acceleration of magnitude 2.00 rad/s2, (a) how long
does it take the wheel to stop? (b) Through how many radians does it turn while it is slowing down? 6. A centrifuge in a medical laboratory rotates at an angular
speed of 3 600 rev/min. When switched off, it rotates 50.0
times before coming to rest. Find the constant angular acceleration of the centrifuge.
7. The tub of a washer goes into its spin cycle, starting from
rest and gaining angular speed steadily for 8.00 s, at which
time it is turning at 5.00 rev/s. At this point the person doing the laundry opens the lid, and a safety switch turns off
the washer. The tub smoothly slows to rest in 12.0 s.
Through how many revolutions does the tub turn while it
is in motion?
8. A rotating wheel requires 3.00 s to rotate through 37.0
revolutions. Its angular speed at the end of the 3.00s
interval is 98.0 rad/s. What is the constant angular acceleration of the wheel?
9. (a) Find the angular speed of the Earth’s rotation on its
axis. As the Earth turns toward the east, we see the sky
turning toward the west at this same rate.
(b) The rainy Pleiads wester
And seek beyond the sea
The head that I shall dream of
That shall not dream of me.
–A. E. Housman (© Robert E. Symons) Problems Cambridge, England, is at longitude 0°, and Saskatoon,
Saskatchewan, is at longitude 107° west. How much time
elapses after the Pleiades set in Cambridge until these stars
fall below the western horizon in Saskatoon?
10. A merrygoround is stationary. A dog is running on the
ground just outside its circumference, moving with a constant angular speed of 0.750 rad/s. The dog does not
change his pace when he sees what he has been looking
for: a bone resting on the edge of the merrygoround one
third of a revolution in front of him. At the instant the dog
sees the bone (t 0), the merrygoround begins to move
in the direction the dog is running, with a constant angular acceleration of 0.015 0 rad/s2. (a) At what time will the
dog reach the bone? (b) The confused dog keeps running
and passes the bone. How long after the merrygoround
starts to turn do the dog and the bone draw even with each
other for the second time? 323 76.0 rev/min. The chain engages with a front sprocket
15.2 cm in diameter and a rear sprocket 7.00 cm in diameter. (a) Calculate the speed of a link of the chain relative
to the bicycle frame. (b) Calculate the angular speed of
the bicycle wheels. (c) Calculate the speed of the bicycle
relative to the road. (d) What pieces of data, if any, are not
necessary for the calculations?
15. A discus thrower (Fig. P10.15) accelerates a discus from
rest to a speed of 25.0 m/s by whirling it through 1.25 rev.
Assume the discus moves on the arc of a circle 1.00 m in
radius. (a) Calculate the ﬁnal angular speed of the discus.
(b) Determine the magnitude of the angular acceleration
of the discus, assuming it to be constant. (c) Calculate the
time interval required for the discus to accelerate from
rest to 25.0 m/s. Section 10.3 Angular and Linear Quantities Bruce Ayers/Stone/Getty 11. Make an orderofmagnitude estimate of the number of
revolutions through which a typical automobile tire turns
in 1 yr. State the quantities you measure or estimate and
their values.
12. A racing car travels on a circular track of radius 250 m. If
the car moves with a constant linear speed of 45.0 m/s,
ﬁnd (a) its angular speed and (b) the magnitude and direction of its acceleration.
13. A wheel 2.00 m in diameter lies in a vertical plane and rotates with a constant angular acceleration of 4.00 rad/s2.
The wheel starts at rest at t 0, and the radius vector of a
certain point P on the rim makes an angle of 57.3° with
the horizontal at this time. At t 2.00 s, ﬁnd (a) the angular speed of the wheel, (b) the tangential speed and the total acceleration of the point P, and (c) the angular position of the point P.
14. Figure P10.14 shows the drive train of a bicycle that has
wheels 67.3 cm in diameter and pedal cranks 17.5 cm
long. The cyclist pedals at a steady angular rate of Figure P10.15 16. A car accelerates uniformly from rest and reaches a speed
of 22.0 m/s in 9.00 s. If the diameter of a tire is 58.0 cm,
ﬁnd (a) the number of revolutions the tire makes during
this motion, assuming that no slipping occurs. (b) What is
the ﬁnal angular speed of a tire in revolutions per second?
17. A disk 8.00 cm in radius rotates at a constant rate of
1 200 rev/min about its central axis. Determine (a) its angular speed, (b) the tangential speed at a point 3.00 cm
from its center, (c) the radial acceleration of a point on
the rim, and (d) the total distance a point on the rim
moves in 2.00 s. 18. A car traveling on a ﬂat (unbanked) circular track accelerates uniformly from rest with a tangential acceleration of
1.70 m/s2. The car makes it one quarter of the way around
the circle before it skids off the track. Determine the coefﬁcient of static friction between the car and track from
these data. Sprocket
Chain Figure P10.14 Crank 19. Consider a tall building located on the Earth’s equator. As
the Earth rotates, a person on the top ﬂoor of the building
moves faster than someone on the ground with respect to
an inertial reference frame, because the latter person is
closer to the Earth’s axis. Consequently, if an object is
dropped from the top ﬂoor to the ground a distance h below, it lands east of the point vertically below where it was
dropped. (a) How far to the east will the object land? Express your answer in terms of h, g, and the angular speed
of the Earth. Neglect air resistance, and assume that the
freefall acceleration is constant over this range of heights.
(b) Evaluate the eastward displacement for h 50.0 m.
(c) In your judgment, were we justiﬁed in ignoring this aspect of the Coriolis effect in our previous study of free fall? 324 C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis Section 10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy
20. Rigid rods of negligible mass lying along the y axis connect
three particles (Fig. P10.20). If the system rotates about
the x axis with an angular speed of 2.00 rad/s, ﬁnd (a) the
moment of inertia about the x axis and the total rotational
kinetic energy evaluated from 1 I 2 and (b) the tangential
2
speed of each particle and the total kinetic energy evalu1
2.
ated from 2mivi
y
4.00 kg through the center of mass. Show that this moment of inertia is I
L2, where
mM/(m M ). Section 10.5 Calculation of Moments of Inertia
23. Three identical thin rods, each of length L and mass m,
are welded perpendicular to one another as shown in
Figure P10.23. The assembly is rotated about an axis
that passes through the end of one rod and is parallel
to another. Determine the moment of inertia of this
structure.
z y = 3.00 m x O
2.00 kg y = –2.00 m
y y = – 4.00 m 3.00 kg Figure P10.20 21. The four particles in Figure P10.21 are connected by
rigid rods of negligible mass. The origin is at the center of
the rectangle. If the system rotates in the xy plane about
the z axis with an angular speed of 6.00 rad/s, calculate
(a) the moment of inertia of the system about the z axis
and (b) the rotational kinetic energy of the system. x
Axis of
rotation Figure P10.23
y(m)
3.00 kg 2.00 kg 6.00 m
x(m) O 24. Figure P10.24 shows a side view of a car tire. Model it as
having two sidewalls of uniform thickness 0.635 cm and a
tread wall of uniform thickness 2.50 cm and width
20.0 cm. Assume the rubber has uniform density
1.10 103 kg/m3. Find its moment of inertia about an
axis through its center. 4.00 m Sidewall 2.00 kg 33.0 cm 4.00 kg Figure P10.21 22. Two balls with masses M and m are connected by a rigid
rod of length L and negligible mass as in Figure P10.22.
For an axis perpendicular to the rod, show that the system
has the minimum moment of inertia when the axis passes 16.5 cm 30.5 cm L Tread m M
x L–x Figure P10.22 Figure P10.24 Problems 25. A uniform thin solid door has height 2.20 m, width
0.870 m, and mass 23.0 kg. Find its moment of inertia for
rotation on its hinges. Is any piece of data unnecessary?
26. Attention! About face! Compute an orderofmagnitude estimate for the moment of inertia of your body as you stand
tall and turn about a vertical axis through the top of your
head and the point halfway between your ankles. In your
solution state the quantities you measure or estimate and
their values.
27. The density of the Earth, at any distance r from its center,
is approximately
[14.2 103 kg/m3 11.6(r/R)] where R is the radius of the Earth. Show that this density
leads to a moment of inertia I 0.330MR 2 about an axis
through the center, where M is the mass of the Earth.
28. Calculate the moment of inertia of a thin plate, in the
shape of a right triangle, about an axis that passes through
one end of the hypotenuse and is parallel to the opposite
leg of the triangle, as in Figure P10.28a. Let M represent
the mass of the triangle and L the length of the base of the
triangle perpendicular to the axis of rotation. Let h represent the height of the triangle and w the thickness of the
plate, much smaller than L or h. Do the calculation in
either or both of the following ways, as your instructor
assigns:
(a) Use Equation 10.17. Let an element of mass consist of a vertical ribbon within the triangle, of width dx,
height y, and thickness w. With x representing the location of the ribbon, show that y hx/L. Show that the
density of the material is given by
2M/Lwh. Show
that the mass of the ribbon is dm
yw dx 2Mx dx/L2.
Proceed to use Equation 10.17 to calculate the moment
of inertia.
(b) Let I represent the unknown moment of inertia
about an axis through the corner of the triangle. Note
that Example 9.15 demonstrates that the center of mass
of the triangle is two thirds of the way along the length L,
from the corner toward the side of height h. Let ICM represent the moment of inertia of the triangle about an axis
through the center of mass and parallel to side h.
Demonstrate that I ICM 4ML2/9. Figure P10.28b
shows the same object in a different orientation. y Demonstrate that the moment of inertia of the triangular
plate, about the y axis is Ih ICM ML2/9. Demonstrate
that the sum of the moments of inertia of the triangles
shown in parts (a) and (b) of the ﬁgure must be the moment of inertia of a rectangular sheet of mass 2M and
length L, rotating like a door about an axis along its edge
of height h. Use information in Table 10.2 to write down
the moment of inertia of the rectangle, and set it equal to
the sum of the moments of inertia of the two triangles.
Solve the equation to ﬁnd the moment of inertia of a triangle about an axis through its center of mass, in terms
of M and L. Proceed to ﬁnd the original unknown I.
29. Many machines employ cams for various purposes, such as
opening and closing valves. In Figure P10.29, the cam is a
circular disk rotating on a shaft that does not pass
through the center of the disk. In the manufacture of the
cam, a uniform solid cylinder of radius R is ﬁrst machined. Then an offcenter hole of radius R/2 is drilled,
parallel to the axis of the cylinder, and centered at a point
a distance R/2 from the center of the cylinder. The cam,
of mass M , is then slipped onto the circular shaft and
welded into place. What is the kinetic energy of the cam
when it is rotating with angular speed about the axis of
the shaft? R
2R Figure P10.29 Section 10.6 Torque
30. The ﬁshing pole in Figure P10.30 makes an angle of 20.0
with the horizontal. What is the torque exerted by the ﬁsh
about an axis perpendicular to the page and passing
through the ﬁsher’s hand? y 2.00 m
20.0°
h L h 20.0°
37.0° CM
100 N x (a) (b) Figure P10.28 325 Figure P10.30 326 31. C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis Find the net torque on the wheel in Figure P10.31
about the axle through O if a 10.0 cm and b 25.0 cm. 10.0 N 30.0° a
O 12.0 N 37. A block of mass m1 2.00 kg and a block of mass
m 2 6.00 kg are connected by a massless string over a pulley in the shape of a solid disk having radius R 0.250 m
and mass M 10.0 kg. These blocks are allowed to move
on a ﬁxed blockwedge of angle
30.0° as in Figure
P10.37. The coefﬁcient of kinetic friction is 0.360 for both
blocks. Draw freebody diagrams of both blocks and of the
pulley. Determine (a) the acceleration of the two blocks
and (b) the tensions in the string on both sides of the
pulley. b
9.00 N m1 M, R Figure P10.31 32. The tires of a 1 500kg car are 0.600 m in diameter, and
the coefﬁcients of friction with the road sur face are
0.800 and k 0.600. Assuming that the weight is
s
evenly distributed on the four wheels, calculate the maximum torque that can be exerted by the engine on a
driving wheel without spinning the wheel. If you wish, you
may assume the car is at rest.
33. Suppose the car in Problem 32 has a disk brake system.
Each wheel is slowed by the friction force between a single
brake pad and the diskshaped rotor. On this particular
car, the brake pad contacts the rotor at an average distance
of 22.0 cm from the axis. The coefﬁcients of friction between the brake pad and the disk are s 0.600 and
0.500. Calculate the normal force that the pad must
k
apply to the rotor in order to slow the car as quickly as
possible. Section 10.7 Relationship between Torque
and Angular Acceleration
34. A grinding wheel is in the form of a uniform solid disk of
radius 7.00 cm and mass 2.00 kg. It starts from rest and accelerates uniformly under the action of the constant
torque of 0.600 N m that the motor exerts on the wheel.
(a) How long does the wheel take to reach its ﬁnal operating speed of 1 200 rev/min? (b) Through how many revolutions does it turn while accelerating?
35. m2 θ Figure P10.37 38. A potter’s wheel—a thick stone disk of radius 0.500 m and
mass 100 kg—is freely rotating at 50.0 rev/min. The potter
can stop the wheel in 6.00 s by pressing a wet rag against
the rim and exerting a radially inward force of 70.0 N.
Find the effective coefﬁcient of kinetic friction between
wheel and rag.
39. An electric motor turns a ﬂywheel through a drive belt
that joins a pulley on the motor and a pulley that is rigidly
attached to the ﬂywheel, as shown in Figure P10.39. The
ﬂywheel is a solid disk with a mass of 80.0 kg and a diameter of 1.25 m. It turns on a frictionless axle. Its pulley has
much smaller mass and a radius of 0.230 m. If the tension
in the upper (taut) segment of the belt is 135 N and the
ﬂywheel has a clockwise angular acceleration of
1.67 rad/s2, ﬁnd the tension in the lower (slack) segment
of the belt. A model airplane with mass 0.750 kg is tethered by a
wire so that it ﬂies in a circle 30.0 m in radius. The airplane engine provides a net thrust of 0.800 N perpendicular to the tethering wire. (a) Find the torque the net thrust
produces about the center of the circle. (b) Find the angular acceleration of the airplane when it is in level ﬂight.
(c) Find the linear acceleration of the airplane tangent to
its ﬂight path. 36. The combination of an applied force and a friction force
produces a constant total torque of 36.0 N m on a wheel
rotating about a ﬁxed axis. The applied force acts for
6.00 s. During this time the angular speed of the wheel increases from 0 to 10.0 rad/s. The applied force is then removed, and the wheel comes to rest in 60.0 s. Find (a) the
moment of inertia of the wheel, (b) the magnitude of the
frictional torque, and (c) the total number of revolutions
of the wheel. Figure P10.39 Section 10.8 Work, Power, and Energy
in Rotational Motion
40. Big Ben, the Parliament tower clock in London, has an
hour hand 2.70 m long with a mass of 60.0 kg, and Problems 43. In Figure P10.43 the sliding block has a mass of 0.850 kg,
the counter weight has a mass of 0.420 kg, and the pulley
is a hollow cylinder with a mass of 0.350 kg, an inner
radius of 0.020 0 m, and an outer radius of 0.030 0 m.
The coefﬁcient of kinetic friction between the block and
the horizontal sur face is 0.250. The pulley turns without
friction on its axle. The light cord does not stretch and
does not slip on the pulley. The block has a velocity of
0.820 m/s toward the pulley when it passes through a
photogate. (a) Use energy methods to predict its speed
after it has moved to a second photogate, 0.700 m away.
(b) Find the angular speed of the pulley at the same
moment. John Lawrence /Getty a minute hand 4.50 m long with a mass of 100 kg (Fig.
P10.40). Calculate the total rotational kinetic energy of the
two hands about the axis of rotation. (You may model the
hands as long, thin rods.) 327 Figure P10.40 Problems 40 and 74. 41. In a city with an airpollution problem, a bus has no combustion engine. It runs on energy drawn from a large,
rapidly rotating ﬂywheel under the ﬂoor of the bus. The
ﬂywheel is spun up to its maximum rotation rate of
4 000 rev/min by an electric motor at the bus terminal.
Every time the bus speeds up, the ﬂywheel slows down
slightly. The bus is equipped with regenerative braking so
that the ﬂywheel can speed up when the bus slows down.
The ﬂywheel is a uniform solid cylinder with mass 1 600 kg
and radius 0.650 m. The bus body does work against air resistance and rolling resistance at the average rate of
18.0 hp as it travels with an average speed of 40.0 km/h.
How far can the bus travel before the ﬂywheel has to be
spun up to speed again?
42. The top in Figure P10.42 has a moment of inertia of
4.00 10 4 kg · m2 and is initially at rest. It is free to
rotate about the stationary axis AA . A string, wrapped
around a peg along the axis of the top, is pulled in such a
manner as to maintain a constant tension of 5.57 N. If the
string does not slip while it is unwound from the peg, what
is the angular speed of the top after 80.0 cm of string has
been pulled off the peg? A′ F A Figure P10.42 Figure P10.43 44. A cylindrical rod 24.0 cm long with mass 1.20 kg and radius 1.50 cm has a ball of diameter 8.00 cm and mass
2.00 kg attached to one end. The arrangement is originally
vertical and stationary, with the ball at the top. The system
is free to pivot about the bottom end of the rod after being
given a slight nudge. (a) After the rod rotates through
ninety degrees, what is its rotational kinetic energy?
(b) What is the angular speed of the rod and ball?
(c) What is the linear speed of the ball? (d) How does this
compare to the speed if the ball had fallen freely through
the same distance of 28 cm?
45. An object with a weight of 50.0 N is attached to the free
end of a light string wrapped around a reel of radius
0.250 m and mass 3.00 kg. The reel is a solid disk, free to
rotate in a vertical plane about the horizontal axis passing
through its center. The suspended object is released
6.00 m above the ﬂoor. (a) Determine the tension in the
string, the acceleration of the object, and the speed with
which the object hits the ﬂoor. (b) Verify your last answer
by using the principle of conservation of energy to ﬁnd the
speed with which the object hits the ﬂoor.
46. A 15.0kg object and a 10.0kg object are suspended,
joined by a cord that passes over a pulley with a radius of
10.0 cm and a mass of 3.00 kg (Fig. P10.46). The cord has
a negligible mass and does not slip on the pulley. The pulley rotates on its axis without friction. The objects start
from rest 3.00 m apart. Treat the pulley as a uniform disk,
and determine the speeds of the two objects as they pass
each other. 328 C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis Pivot M R g R M = 3.00 kg
R = 10.0 cm
m1 = 15.0 kg
m2 = 10.0 kg m1
3.00 m
m2 Figure P10.46 47. This problem describes one experimental method for determining the moment of inertia of an irregularly shaped
object such as the payload for a satellite. Figure P10.47
shows a counterweight of mass m suspended by a cord
wound around a spool of radius r, forming part of a
turntable supporting the object. The turntable can rotate
without friction. When the counterweight is released from
rest, it descends through a distance h, acquiring a speed v.
Show that the moment of inertia I of the rotating apparatus (including the turntable) is mr 2(2gh/v 2 1). Figure P10.49 50. The head of a grass string trimmer has 100 g of cord
wound in a light cylindrical spool with inside diameter
3.00 cm and outside diameter 18.0 cm, as in Figure
P10.50. The cord has a linear density of 10.0 g/m. A single
strand of the cord extends 16.0 cm from the outer edge of
the spool. (a) When switched on, the trimmer speeds up
from 0 to 2 500 rev/min in 0.215 s. (a) What average
power is delivered to the head by the trimmer motor while
it is accelerating? (b) When the trimmer is cutting grass, it
spins at 2 000 rev/min and the grass exerts an average tangential force of 7.65 N on the outer end of the cord, which
is still at a radial distance of 16.0 cm from the outer edge
of the spool. What is the power delivered to the head under load? 16.0 cm 3.0 cm
18.0 cm Figure P10.50
m Figure P10.47 Section 10.9 Rolling Motion of a Rigid Object
51. 48. A horizontal 800N merrygoround is a solid disk of radius
1.50 m, started from rest by a constant horizontal force of
50.0 N applied tangentially to the edge of the disk. Find
the kinetic energy of the disk after 3.00 s.
49. (a) A uniform solid disk of radius R and mass M is free to
rotate on a frictionless pivot through a point on its rim
(Fig. P10.49). If the disk is released from rest in the position shown by the blue circle, what is the speed of its center of mass when the disk reaches the position indicated by
the dashed circle? (b) What is the speed of the lowest
point on the disk in the dashed position? (c) What If?
Repeat part (a) using a uniform hoop. A cylinder of mass 10.0 kg rolls without slipping on a
horizontal sur face. At the instant its center of mass has a
speed of 10.0 m/s, determine (a) the translational kinetic
energy of its center of mass, (b) the rotational kinetic energy about its center of mass, and (c) its total energy. 52. A bowling ball has mass M, radius R, and a moment of inertia of 2 MR 2. If it starts from rest, how much work must
5
be done on it to set it rolling without slipping at a linear
speed v ? Express the work in terms of M and v.
53. (a) Determine the acceleration of the center of mass of a
uniform solid disk rolling down an incline making angle
with the horizontal. Compare this acceleration with that of
a uniform hoop. (b) What is the minimum coefﬁcient of Problems 329 friction required to maintain pure rolling motion for the
disk?
54. A uniform solid disk and a uniform hoop are placed side
by side at the top of an incline of height h. If they are released from rest and roll without slipping, which object
reaches the bottom ﬁrst? Verify your answer by calculating
their speeds when they reach the bottom in terms of h. 56. A tennis ball is a hollow sphere with a thin wall. It is set
rolling without slipping at 4.03 m/s on a horizontal section of a track, as shown in Figure P10.56. It rolls around
the inside of a vertical circular loop 90.0 cm in diameter
and ﬁnally leaves the track at a point 20.0 cm below the
horizontal section. (a) Find the speed of the ball at the top
of the loop. Demonstrate that it will not fall from the
track. (b) Find its speed as it leaves the track. What If?
(c) Suppose that static friction between ball and track were
negligible, so that the ball slid instead of rolling. Would its
speed then be higher, lower, or the same at the top of the
loop? Explain. Jerry Wachter / Photo Researchers, Inc. 55. A metal can containing condensed mushroom soup has
mass 215 g, height 10.8 cm, and diameter 6.38 cm. It is
placed at rest on its side at the top of a 3.00mlong incline
that is at 25.0° to the horizontal, and it is then released to
roll straight down. Assuming mechanical energy conservation, calculate the moment of inertia of the can if it takes
1.50 s to reach the bottom of the incline. Which pieces of
data, if any, are unnecessary for calculating the solution? Figure P10.57 A building demolition site in Baltimore, MD. At
the left is a chimney, mostly concealed by the building, that has
broken apart on its way down. Compare with Figure 10.19. 58. Review problem. A mixing beater consists of three thin
rods, each 10.0 cm long. The rods diverge from a central
hub, separated from each other by 120°, and all turn in the
same plane. A ball is attached to the end of each rod. Each
ball has crosssectional area 4.00 cm2 and is so shaped that
it has a drag coefﬁcient of 0.600. Calculate the power input required to spin the beater at 1 000 rev/min (a) in air
and (b) in water. Figure P10.56 Additional Problems
57. As in Figure P10.57, toppling chimneys often break apart
in midfall because the mortar between the bricks cannot
withstand much shear stress. As the chimney begins to fall,
shear forces must act on the topmost sections to accelerate
them tangentially so that they can keep up with the rotation of the lower part of the stack. For simplicity, let us
model the chimney as a uniform rod of length pivoted at
the lower end. The rod starts at rest in a vertical position
(with the frictionless pivot at the bottom) and falls over
under the inﬂuence of gravity. What fraction of the length
of the rod has a tangential acceleration greater than
g sin , where is the angle the chimney makes with the
vertical axis? 59. A 4.00m length of light nylon cord is wound around a
uniform cylindrical spool of radius 0.500 m and mass
1.00 kg. The spool is mounted on a frictionless axle and is
initially at rest. The cord is pulled from the spool with a
constant acceleration of magnitude 2.50 m/s2. (a) How
much work has been done on the spool when it reaches
an angular speed of 8.00 rad/s? (b) Assuming there is
enough cord on the spool, how long does it take the spool
to reach this angular speed? (c) Is there enough cord on
the spool?
60. A videotape cassette contains two spools, each of radius rs,
on which the tape is wound. As the tape unwinds from the
ﬁrst spool, it winds around the second spool. The tape
moves at constant linear speed v past the heads between
the spools. When all the tape is on the ﬁrst spool, the tape
has an outer radius rt . Let r represent the outer radius of
the tape on the ﬁrst spool at any instant while the tape is
being played. (a) Show that at any instant the angular
speeds of the two spools are
1 v/r and 2 v/(rs 2 rt 2 r 2)1/2 (b) Show that these expressions predict the correct maximum and minimum values for the angular speeds of the
two spools. 330 C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis 61. A long uniform rod of length L and mass M is pivoted
about a horizontal, frictionless pin through one end. The
rod is released from rest in a vertical position, as shown in
Figure P10.61. At the instant the rod is horizontal, ﬁnd
(a) its angular speed, (b) the magnitude of its angular acceleration, (c) the x and y components of the acceleration
of its center of mass, and (d) the components of the reaction force at the pivot.
y L Pivot x 64. A bicycle is turned upside down while its owner repairs a
ﬂat tire. A friend spins the other wheel, of radius R, and
observes that drops of water ﬂy off tangentially. She measures the height reached by drops moving vertically (Fig.
P10.63). A drop that breaks loose from the tire on one
turn rises a distance h1 above the tangent point. A drop
that breaks loose on the next turn rises a distance h2 h1
above the tangent point. The height to which the drops
rise decreases because the angular speed of the wheel decreases. From this information, determine the magnitude
of the average angular acceleration of the wheel.
65. A cord is wrapped around a pulley of mass m and radius r.
The free end of the cord is connected to a block of mass
M. The block starts from rest and then slides down an incline that makes an angle with the horizontal. The coefﬁcient of kinetic friction between block and incline is .
(a) Use energy methods to show that the block’s speed as a
function of position d down the incline is Figure P10.61 62. A shaft is turning at 65.0 rad/s at time t
angular acceleration is given by
10.0 rad/s 2 0. Thereafter, its 5.00t rad/s3, where t is the elapsed time. (a) Find its angular speed at
t 3.00 s. (b) How far does it turn in these 3 s?
63. A bicycle is turned upside down while its owner repairs a
ﬂat tire. A friend spins the other wheel, of radius 0.381 m,
and observes that drops of water ﬂy off tangentially. She
measures the height reached by drops moving vertically
(Fig. P10.63). A drop that breaks loose from the tire on
one turn rises h 54.0 cm above the tangent point. A
drop that breaks loose on the next turn rises 51.0 cm
above the tangent point. The height to which the drops
rise decreases because the angular speed of the wheel decreases. From this information, determine the magnitude
of the average angular acceleration of the wheel. v √ 4gdM(sin
m cos )
2M (b) Find the magnitude of the acceleration of the block in
terms of , m, M, g, and .
66. (a) What is the rotational kinetic energy of the Earth
about its spin axis? Model the Earth as a uniform sphere
and use data from the endpapers. (b) The rotational kinetic energy of the Earth is decreasing steadily because of
tidal friction. Find the change in one day, assuming that
the rotational period decreases by 10.0 s each year.
67. Due to a gravitational torque exerted by the Moon on the
Earth, our planet’s rotation period slows at a rate on the
order of 1 ms/century. (a) Determine the order of magnitude of the Earth’s angular acceleration. (b) Find the
order of magnitude of the torque. (c) Find the order of
magnitude of the size of the wrench an ordinary person
would need to exert such a torque, as in Figure P10.67.
Assume the person can brace his feet against a solid
ﬁrmament. h Figure P10.63 Problems 63 and 64. Figure P10.67 Problems 68. The speed of a moving bullet can be determined by allowing the bullet to pass through two rotating paper disks
mounted a distance d apart on the same axle (Fig. P10.68).
From the angular displacement
of the two bullet holes
in the disks and the rotational speed of the disks, we can
determine the speed v of the bullet. Find the bullet speed
for the following data: d 80 cm,
900 rev/min, and
31.0°. 331 is fastened to a cord wrapped around the reel. The reel
axle and the incline are frictionless. The reel is wound
counterclockwise so that the spring stretches a distance d
from its unstretched position and is then released from
rest. (a) Find the angular speed of the reel when the
spring is again unstretched. (b) Evaluate the angular
speed numerically at this point if I 1.00 kg · m2,
R 0.300 m, k 50.0 N/m, m 0.500 kg, d 0.200 m,
and
37.0°.
71. Two blocks, as shown in Figure P10.71, are connected by a
string of negligible mass passing over a pulley of radius
0.250 m and moment of inertia I. The block on the frictionless incline is moving up with a constant acceleration
of 2.00 m/s2. (a) Determine T1 and T2, the tensions in the
two parts of the string. (b) Find the moment of inertia of
the pulley. ∆ θ = 31.0°
v ω
2.00 m/s2
d T1 Figure P10.68 69. A uniform, hollow, cylindrical spool has inside radius R/2,
outside radius R, and mass M (Fig. P10.69). It is mounted
so that it rotates on a ﬁxed horizontal axle. A counterweight of mass m is connected to the end of a string wound
around the spool. The counterweight falls from rest at
t 0 to a position y at time t. Show that the torque due to
the friction forces between spool and axle is
f 2y
t2 Rmg M 5y
4t 2 M m T2 15.0 kg
m1 m 2 20.0 kg 37.0° Figure P10.71 72. A common demonstration, illustrated in Figure P10.72,
consists of a ball resting at one end of a uniform board of
length , hinged at the other end, and elevated at an angle
. A light cup is attached to the board at rc so that it will
catch the ball when the support stick is suddenly removed.
(a) Show that the ball will lag behind the falling board
when is less than 35.3°. (b) If the board is 1.00 m long
and is supported at this limiting angle, show that the cup
must be 18.4 cm from the moving end. R/2
R/2 Cup y Figure P10.69
rc 70. The reel shown in Figure P10.70 has radius R and moment of inertia I. One end of the block of mass m is connected to a spring of force constant k, and the other end Support
stick θ R
m
k Hinged end θ Figure P10.70 Figure P10.72 332 C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis 73. As a result of friction, the angular speed of a wheel
changes with time according to
d
dt 0e t of the disk, (b) the magnitude of the acceleration of the
center of mass is 2g/3, and (c) the speed of the center of
mass is (4gh/3)1/2 after the disk has descended through
distance h. Verify your answer to (c) using the energy
approach. where 0 and are constants. The angular speed changes
from 3.50 rad/s at t 0 to 2.00 rad/s at t 9.30 s. Use
this information to determine and 0. Then determine
(a) the magnitude of the angular acceleration at
t 3.00 s, (b) the number of revolutions the wheel makes
in the ﬁrst 2.50 s, and (c) the number of revolutions it
makes before coming to rest.
74. The hour hand and the minute hand of Big Ben, the
Parliament tower clock in London, are 2.70 m and 4.50 m
long and have masses of 60.0 kg and 100 kg, respectively
(see Figure P10.40). (a) Determine the total torque due to
the weight of these hands about the axis of rotation when
the time reads (i) 3:00 (ii) 5:15 (iii) 6:00 (iv) 8:20 (v) 9:45.
(You may model the hands as long, thin uniform rods.)
(b) Determine all times when the total torque about the
axis of rotation is zero. Determine the times to the nearest
second, solving a transcendental equation numerically. 75. (a) Without the wheels, a bicycle frame has a mass of
8.44 kg. Each of the wheels can be roughly modeled as a
uniform solid disk with a mass of 0.820 kg and a radius of
0.343 m. Find the kinetic energy of the whole bicycle when
it is moving forward at 3.35 m/s. (b) Before the invention
of a wheel turning on an axle, ancient people moved heavy
loads by placing rollers under them. (Modern people use
rollers too. Any hardware store will sell you a roller bearing for a lazy susan.) A stone block of mass 844 kg moves
forward at 0.335 m/s, supported by two uniform cylindrical tree trunks, each of mass 82.0 kg and radius 0.343 m.
No slipping occurs between the block and the rollers or
between the rollers and the ground. Find the total kinetic
energy of the moving objects. h R Figure P10.77 78. A constant horizontal force F is applied to a lawn roller in
the form of a uniform solid cylinder of radius R and mass
M (Fig. P10.78). If the roller rolls without slipping on the
horizontal sur face, show that (a) the acceleration of the
center of mass is 2F/3M and (b) the minimum coefﬁcient
of friction necessary to prevent slipping is F/3Mg. (Hint:
Take the torque with respect to the center of mass.) θ R F M R 76. A uniform solid sphere of radius r is placed on the inside
sur face of a hemispherical bowl with much larger radius R.
The sphere is released from rest at an angle to the vertical and rolls without slipping (Fig. P10.76). Determine the
angular speed of the sphere when it reaches the bottom of
the bowl. r M Figure P10.78 79. A solid sphere of mass m and radius r rolls without slipping
along the track shown in Figure P10.79. It starts from rest
with the lowest point of the sphere at height h above the
bottom of the loop of radius R , much larger than r.
(a) What is the minimum value of h (in terms of R ) such
that the sphere completes the loop? (b) What are the
force components on the sphere at the point P if h 3R ?
m Figure P10.76 77. A string is wound around a uniform disk of radius R and
mass M. The disk is released from rest with the string vertical and its top end tied to a ﬁxed bar (Fig. P10.77). Show
that (a) the tension in the string is one third of the weight h R Figure P10.79 P Problems 80. A thin rod of mass 0.630 kg and length 1.24 m is at rest,
hanging vertically from a strong ﬁxed hinge at its top
end. Suddenly a horizontal impulsive force (14.7 ˆ) N is
i
applied to it. (a) Suppose the force acts at the bottom
end of the rod. Find the acceleration of its center of mass
and the horizontal force the hinge exerts. (b) Suppose
the force acts at the midpoint of the rod. Find the acceleration of this point and the horizontal hinge reaction.
(c) Where can the impulse be applied so that the hinge
will exert no horizontal force? This point is called the
center of percussion.
81. A bowler releases a bowling ball with no spin, sending it
sliding straight down the alley toward the pins. The ball
continues to slide for a distance of what order of magnitude, before its motion becomes rolling without slipping?
State the quantities you take as data, the values you measure or estimate for them, and your reasoning.
82. Following Thanksgiving dinner your uncle falls into a deep
sleep, sitting straight up facing the television set. A
naughty grandchild balances a small spherical grape at the
top of his bald head, which itself has the shape of a sphere.
After all the children have had time to giggle, the grape
starts from rest and rolls down without slipping. It will
leave contact with your uncle’s scalp when the radial line
joining it to the center of curvature makes what angle with
the vertical?
83. (a) A thin rod of length h and mass M is held vertically
with its lower end resting on a frictionless horizontal surface. The rod is then released to fall freely. Determine the
speed of its center of mass just before it hits the horizontal
sur face. (b) What If? Now suppose the rod has a ﬁxed
pivot at its lower end. Determine the speed of the rod’s
center of mass just before it hits the sur face.
84. A large, cylindrical roll of tissue paper of initial radius R
lies on a long, horizontal sur face with the outside end of
the paper nailed to the sur face. The roll is given a slight
shove (vi 0) and commences to unroll. Assume the roll
has a uniform density and that mechanical energy is conserved in the process. (a) Determine the speed of the center of mass of the roll when its radius has diminished to r.
(b) Calculate a numerical value for this speed at
r 1.00 mm, assuming R 6.00 m. (c) What If? What
happens to the energy of the system when the paper is
completely unrolled? 333 uniform solid cylinder that doesn’t slip, show that (a) the
acceleration of the center of mass is 4F/3M and (b) the
force of friction is to the right and equal in magnitude to
F/3. (c) If the cylinder starts from rest and rolls without
slipping, what is the speed of its center of mass after it has
rolled through a distance d ?
86. A plank with a mass M 6.00 kg rides on top of two
identical solid cylindrical rollers that have R 5.00 cm
and m 2.00 kg (Fig. P10.86). The plank is pulled by a
constant horizontal force F of magnitude 6.00 N applied
to the end of the plank and perpendicular to the axes of
the cylinders (which are parallel). The cylinders roll without slipping on a flat sur face. There is also no slipping
between the cylinders and the plank. (a) Find the acceleration of the plank and of the rollers. (b) What friction
forces are acting?
M
m F R m R Figure P10.86 87. A spool of wire rests on a horizontal sur face as in Figure
P10.87. As the wire is pulled, the spool does not slip at
the contact point P. On separate trials, each one of
the forces F1, F2, F3, and F4 is applied to the spool. For
each one of these forces, determine the direction the
spool will roll. Note that the line of action of F2 passes
through P. F3
F2
F4
r R θc
F1 85. A spool of wire of mass M and radius R is unwound under
a constant force F (Fig. P10.85). Assuming the spool is a
P
F M R Figure P10.87 Problems 87 and 88. 88. Refer to Problem 87 and Figure P10.87. The spool of wire
has an inner radius r and an outer radius R. The angle
between the applied force and the horizontal can be varied. Show that the critical angle for which the spool does
not roll is given by
cos Figure P10.85 c r
R If the wire is held at this angle and the force increased, the
spool will remain stationary until it slips along the ﬂoor. C HAPTE R 1 0 • Rotation of a Rigid Object About a Fixed Axis 334 89. In a demonstration known as the ballistics cart, a ball
is projected vertically upward from a cart moving with
constant velocity along the horizontal direction. The ball
lands in the catching cup of the cart because both the cart
a ball have the same horizontal component of velocity.
What If? Now consider a ballistics cart on an incline making an angle with the horizontal as in Figure P10.89.
The cart (including wheels) has a mass M and the moment of inertia of each of the two wheels is mR 2/2. (a) Using conservation of energy (assuming no friction between
cart and axles) and assuming pure rolling motion (no
slipping), show that the acceleration of the cart along the
incline is
M ax M 2m 4m
M 2m sin
cos2 v yi 2
g and vyi is the initial speed of the ball imparted to it by the
spring in the cart. (c) Show that the distance d that the
ball travels measured along the incline is
d R1 T Figure P10.90 Answers to Quick Quizzes g sin (b) Note that the x component of acceleration of the ball
released by the cart is g sin . Thus, the x component of
the cart’s acceleration is smaller than that of the ball by the
factor M/(M 2m). Use this fact and kinematic equations
to show that the ball overshoots the cart by an amount x,
where
x R2 2vyi 2 sin
g
cos2 10.1 (c). For a rotation of more than 180°, the angular displacement must be larger than
3.14 rad. The
angular displacements in the three choices are
(a) 6 rad 3 rad 3 rad (b) 1 rad ( 1) rad 2 rad
(c) 5 rad 1 rad 4 rad.
10.2 (b). Because all angular displacements occur in the
same time interval, the displacement with the lowest
value will be associated with the lowest average angular
speed.
10.3 (b). The fact that
is negative indicates that we are
dealing with an object that is rotating in the clockwise
direction. We also know that when and are antiparallel, must be decreasing—the object is slowing down.
Therefore, the object is spinning more and more slowly
(with less and less angular speed) in the clockwise, or
negative, direction.
10.4 (b). In Equation 10.8, both the initial and ﬁnal angular speeds are the same in all three cases. As a result,
the angular acceleration is inversely proportional to
the angular displacement. Thus, the highest angular
acceleration is associated with the lowest angular
displacement. y 10.5 (b). The system of the platform, Andy, and Charlie is a
rigid object, so all points on the rigid object have the
same angular speed. x ∆x 10.6 (a). The tangential speed is proportional to the radial
distance from the rotation axis.
θ Figure P10.89 90. A spool of thread consists of a cylinder of radius R1 with
end caps of radius R 2 as in the end view shown in Figure
P10.90. The mass of the spool, including the thread, is m
and its moment of inertia about an axis through its center
is I. The spool is placed on a rough horizontal sur face so
that it rolls without slipping when a force T acting to the
right is applied to the free end of the thread. Show that
the magnitude of the friction force exerted by the sur face
on the spool is given by
f I
I mR 1R 2
T
mR 22 Determine the direction of the force of friction. 10.7 (a). Almost all of the mass of the pipe is at the same distance from the rotation axis, so it has a larger moment
of inertia than the solid cylinder.
10.8 (b). The fatter handle of the screwdriver gives you a
larger moment arm and increases the torque that you
can apply with a given force from your hand.
10.9 (a). The longer handle of the wrench gives you a larger
moment arm and increases the torque that you can apply with a given force from your hand.
10.10 (b). With twice the moment of inertia and the same frictional torque, there is half the angular acceleration.
With half the angular acceleration, it will require twice
as long to change the speed to zero.
10.11 (d). When the rod is attached at its end, it offers four
times as much moment of inertia as when attached in
the center (see Table 10.2). Because the rotational Answers to Quick Quizzes kinetic energy of the rod depends on the square of the
angular speed, the same work will result in half of the
angular speed.
10.12 (b). All of the gravitational potential energy of the
box–Earth system is transformed to kinetic energy
of translation. For the ball, some of the gravitational
potential energy of the ball–Earth system is transformed
to rotational kinetic energy, leaving less for translational
kinetic energy, so the ball moves downhill more slowly
than the box does. 335 2
10.13 (c). In Equation 10.30, ICM for a sphere is 5 MR2. Thus,
2 will cancel and the remaining expression on the
MR
righthand side of the equation is independent of mass
and radius. 10.14 (a). The moment of inertia of the hollow sphere B is
larger than that of sphere A. As a result, Equation 10.30
tells us that the center of mass of sphere B will have a
smaller speed, so sphere A should arrive ﬁrst. ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/10/2009 for the course PHY 76875 taught by Professor Turner during the Summer '09 term at University of Texas.
 Summer '09
 Turner
 Acceleration

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