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Unformatted text preview: Prof. Jefferies
1. In an Interglacial, new ice that develops on the remnants of the northern ice caps
may be expected to have which one of the following isotopic signatures of oxygen? om a. The same 18O/16O ratio as that of water vapour originating from equatorial ocean
water in a Glacial Period.
b. A decrease in the ratio of 18O/16O relative to that in ice formed in a Glacial Period.
c. An increase in the ratio of 18O/16O relative to that in ice formed in a Glacial Period.
d. A higher 18O/16O ratio than that in the outer shell of Foramifera that lived in
equatorial ocean waters in a Glacial Period.
e. A higher 18O/16O ratio than that of water vapour originating from equatorial ocean
water in a Glacial Period. y.
c 2 . Which statement is CORRECT? de
dd a. Loess is the deposition of sediment in periglacial lakes in late summer.
b. Varves are characteristic of periglacial zones.
c. Till is a type of lateral moraine.
d. The Holocene Period is the last 20,000 years.
e. Glacial retreat at the end of the Wisconsin Glaciation commenced 20,000 years ago. .s
tu 3. The regions of the Gulf of Bothnia (northern Baltic Sea) and the Hudson Bay
provide evidence of which landscape feature? ut
or on to a. Deep loess deposits
b. Remnants of former ice caps
c. Extensive drumlin formation
d. Isostatic uplift (rebound) of land
e. Remains of fossilized forest trees from the late Tertiary Period 4. Which statement about the Younger Dryas Period is CORRECT?
a. It is an example of a stadial.
b. Pine and birch spread rapidly northwards.
c. It occurred about 20,000 years ago.
d. The North Atlantic Conveyor Belt extended northwards to the Greenland Sea.
e. The salinity of the surface waters of the North Atlantic increased dramatically. 5 . The northward migration patterns of vegetation in the present Interglacial indicates
a. plant communities migrated intact.
b. the rates of migration of the different plant species were similar in time and space.
c. rising sea levels created a barrier to migration in some localities.
d. the Beringia megafauna slowed plant migration because of overgrazing.
e. species with poorly preserved pollen migrated slowly. 6 . Which statement about the decomposition of nitrogen-rich necromass (dead organic
material) is CORRECT? de
c om a. The different steps involving the breakdown of proteinaceous material to nitrate can
be carried out by a single species of bacteria.
b. The only organisms involve in decomposition are prokaryotes.
c. The primary biological need for decomposition is that it provides a source of
nitrogen for decomposing organisms.
d. The pathway from ammonium to nitrate ions is controlled by chemoautotrophic
bacteria, such as Nitrobacter.
e. Nitrification occurs under highly anaerobic conditions. .s
tu 7 . Which statement about the nitrogen cycle is CORRECT? ut
or on to a. It is an imperfect biogeochemical cycle.
b. The transformations of nitrogen which involve valency changes from +5 to –3 for
different nitrogen compounds can be carried out by microorganisms.
c. Free-living colonies of Rhizobium species (bacterium) in the soil fix atmospheric
d. The heterocyst cells in filaments of species of Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)
contain leghaemoglobin that reduces oxygen concentrations in the cells.
e. The uptake of ammonium ions by plants and their conversion to amino acids is a
greater energetic cost that the uptake and conversion of nitrate ions. 8 . The presence of nitrous oxide in soil is indicative of the occurrence of:
a. aerobic conditions, nitrate assimilation, and eukaryotic cells.
b. anaerobic conditions, denitrification, and prokaryotic cells.
c. anaerobic conditions, eukaryotic cells, and nitrate respiration.
d. aerobic conditions, prokaryotic cells, and nitrite respiration.
e. anaerobic conditions, prokaryotic cells, and nitrite respiration. 9 . Which one of the following is NOT involved in the acquisition of phosphate ions
a. Secretion of phosphatase enzymes by roots
b. Release of organic acids by roots
c. Well developed mycorrhizal association
d. Release of protease enzymes by roots
e. Root systems that extend into the soil 10 . The formation of Lake Agassiz in Manitoba is linked to which of the following? 11. Which statement is CORRECT? de
c om a. The start of the Holocene
b. The boundary between the Tertiary and Quaternary Periods when cold, wet
c. The wet conditions associated with the Climatic Optimum or Hypsithermal
d. The build-up of glacial meltwater from the Wisconsin Glaciation
e. The Younger Dryas on to .s
tu a. Gypsum is frequently added to sodic soils to convert alkali carbonates into sodium
sulphate and calcium carbonate.
b. Desertification is caused by climate change.
c. In arid areas evapotranspiration equals precipitation.
d. Wheat and citrus crops are salt-tolerant.
e. Clay consists of a lattice of magnesium oxide molecules. ut
or 12 . Which statement is FALSE? a. The Savanna regions south of the Sahel receive more rainfall than the Sahel.
b. The southern limit of the Intertropical Convergence Zone is reached in January.
c. Plant productivity is higher in the Sahel than the Savanna region to the south.
d. Scattered trees and grassland characterize savanna vegetation.
e. Aridity is widespread in the Sahel in December of each year. 13. Which of the following best describes the forage quality of vegetation in the Sahel?
a. Where rainfall is low (100 mm), plant production is low, but protein content is high.
b. Where rainfall is 100 mm, plant production and protein content are high.
c. Where rainfall is 100 mm, plant production and protein content are low.
d. Where rainfall is high (800 mm), plant production and protein content are high.
e. Where rainfall is 800 mm, plant production is low, but protein content is high. 14. Which statement about El Niño events is CORRECT?
a. There is an upwelling of cold water off the coast of Peru.
b. Atmospheric pressure is high in Taheti.
c. An El Niño event occurs on alternate years.
d. Trade winds during an El Niño event are weak.
e. Monsoons are common in southeast Asia. 15. Which statement is CORRECT? de
c om a. Allochthonous marine inputs maintain secondary production in terrestrial habitats on
islands in Baja California (Mexico) during an El Niño event.
b. Terrestrial primary productivity on islands in the Gulf of Baja (Mexico) is low
during a La Niña event.
c. Little rain falls on the west coast of Mexico and California during an El Niño event.
d. Food webs on islands in the Gulf of Baja (Mexico) during La Niña events are driven
by primary production.
e. Surface water temperatures in the southeast Pacific are below average during El
Niño events. .s
tu 16. Which statement about the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is FALSE? When the
NAO is strongly positive: ut
or on to a. atmospheric pressure is high near Lisbon, Portugal and low near Reykjavik, Iceland.
b. western Europe has mild winter temperatures.
c. western Europe has high amounts of precipitation in winter.
d. stratospheric winds in the Arctic are strong.
e. the westerly (from the west) airflow across the Atlantic is weak. 17 . Which one of the following is NOT a result of fire?
a. Build up of inorganic nutrients in the soil for plant growth
b. Development of lateritic soils
c. Loss of organic plant litter
d. Rapid flowering of fire-adapted species
e. Germination of seeds that require high temperatures to trigger germination 18. Which statement is CORRECT?
a. The active layer in tundra soils will increase in thickness in response to warming.
b. In response to an increase in soil temperature all plant species will show early
c. Most soil carbon is stored in tropical soils.
d. The ocean waters are rich in nutrients.
e. The ocean sediments are likely to be the sink for most of the carbon generated from
anthropogenic sources. 19. Which statement is FALSE? de
c om a. At near infra-red wavelengths most wavelengths are reflected or transmitted by
b. Glass is opaque to infra-red radiation.
c. Most carbon on Earth is stored in the oceans.
d. Increased herbivory of leaves may result from global warming.
e. The melting of the ice caps is the principal cause of the on-going rise in sea-level. 20. When the North Atlantic Oscillation is strongly positive it can be expected to have
which one of the following effects in northwest Europe? ut
or on to .s
tu a. Little or no flowering of vascular plants
b. Early flowering of vascular plants
c. Accumulation of ice in the Norwegian Sea
d. Reduced fecundity in browsing mammals
e. Slow growth of cod 21. Which of the following is NOT one of the basic steps in constructing a phylogenetic
a. Determine the order and polarity of the characters.
b. Code the characters and construct a matrix.
c. Provide a classification based on non-monophyletic groups.
d. Identify homologous characters.
e. Group taxa according to shared derived characters to produce a phylogenetic
hypothesis. 22. Use the out-group comparison method to polarize the characters in the table below.
What are the correct recoded character states for Taxon J? Taxon F is the out-group.
Character Character Character Character Character
5 F present seeds yellow long 4 G absent spores green long 6 H present spores blue long 6 I present seeds blue short 4 J present spores green short 5 Char. 1 Char. 2 Char. 3 Char. 4 Char. 5
2 1 1 b. 0 0 0 0 0 c. 1 1 2 0 2 d. 0 0 1 1 2 e. 0 1 2 0 1 y.
c 1 de
dd a. 0 om Taxa .s
tu 23. Which statement presents the correct number of occipital condyles for mammals,
birds, and frogs? ut
or on to a. Mammals = 2; birds = 1; frogs = 1
b. Mammals = 2; birds = 1; frogs = 2
c. Mammals = 2; birds = 2; frogs = 2
d. Mammals = 1; birds = 1; frogs = 2
e. Mammals = 1; birds = 2; frogs = 2 24. Construct a raw pay-off matrix for a Prisoner's Dilemma game, where costs = 4
points and benefits = 9 points. How many points would a player get if they defected and
their partner defected?
e. 9 25. Which statement about hearing in mammals, birds, and frogs is CORRECT? a. Mammals have three bones in the inner ear: malleus, incus, and stapes.
b. The malleus in mammals is derived from the jugal.
c. Birds do not have auditory bullae.
d. Frogs have a small outer ear.
e. In frogs, the columella, quadrate, and articular bones conduct vibrations of the
tympanic membrane into the inner ear. 26. Which statement is FALSE? de
c om a. Mammals and frogs have teeth in the upper jaw.
b. The secondary palate in frogs separates air inhaled through the nose from food in the
c. The absence of elaborate bones in the nasal passage of birds suggests their sense of
smell is less developed than in mammals.
d. The bones in the bird palate are less complete (the palate has open spaces) than in the
mammalian palate (which is solid).
e. The mammalian palate has two halves which join together during development. ut
or on to .s
tu 27. Which statement relating to the phylogenetic tree shown below is CORRECT? a. The tree has 8 steps.
b. Character 5 is homoplasious.
c. Character 6 is a multistate character.
d. Snakes are more closely related to turtles than they are to birds.
e. Frogs are more closely related to mammals than they are to fish. 28. Which statement about game theory and the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game is FALSE?
a. If you are passing through an airport in a foreign country and someone you do not
know asks you to loan them money, according to the PD game, it is best to say no.
b. When you play the iterated (multiple-moves) PD game it is important not to know
when the game is going to end.
c. In an evolutionary game of PD the more successful strategies will have a higher
probability of being transmitted to the next generation.
d. A nasty strategy is the first to defect.
e. The predator-prey relationship of lynx and hare is an example of a non-zero sum
game. om 29. In mammals, the humerus, de
c a. is positioned alongside the ulna.
b. has a distinctive olecranon projection at one end.
c. articulates with the scapula.
d. has been reduced in size in some species so as to resemble a splint.
e. has a conspicuous hole in one end to permit passage of the anterior air sac. 30. Based on the following data matrix, which is the correct phylogeny?
0 0 0 0 0 0 B 0 0 0 0 0 1 C 0 0 2 1 1 D 0 1 E 1 1 to .s
tu A on Taxa Char.1 Char.2 Char.3 Char.4 Char.5 Char.6 0
1 0 1 2 1 0 1 ut
or 2 om
dd 31. Which statement is FALSE? on to .s
tu a. Turbidity is high when microorganisms and organic and inorganic particles are
abundant in water.
b. Oxygen levels in water can be reduced through the over-fertilization of aquatic plants.
c. Most lakes become more acidic (low pH) as they age and organic materials
accumulate and decay.
d. As a lake undergoes eutrophication green algae will continue to be the most abundant
e. Conductivity estimates the total amount of dissolved ions in water. ut
or 32. In a phylogenetic analysis what is the principle of parsimony used for?
a. To determine which tree best fits the data when more than one tree is obtained.
b. To define the in-group.
c. To determine which of two homologous character states is ancestral or derived.
d. To determine which of two homoplasious character states is ancestral or derived.
e. To explain an artificial group of taxa which does not include the common ancestor. 33. According to material presented in BIO150’s statistics self-study exercise, which
statement is CORRECT?
a. 1500.0 km measured to an accuracy of 0.1 km has four significant figures.
b. 0.0042625 has seven significant figures.
c. Changing the scale factor from centimetres to millimetres increases the number of
d. If a measurement shows little to no variation, its accuracy is high; if it is highly variable, its accuracy is low.
e. 14.50 rounded to two significant figures becomes 14. 34. Game theory models the interactions between individuals. Which example of either a
zero-sum or a non zero-sum “game” is FALSE? de
dd 35. Which statement about phytoplankton is CORRECT? y.
c om a. Non zero-sum: bacteria in the stomach of humans that produce vitamin K.
b. Non zero-sum: a lethal parasitic fluke that inhabits the central nervous system of
c. Non zero-sum: an ant harvesting excess sugars from an aphid that it protects from
d. Zero-sum: chess.
e. Zero-sum: a wolf preying upon a rabbit. .s
tu a. Only green-algae affect water turbidity levels.
b. When oxygen levels are low, green algae are more common than blue-green algae.
c. Green-algae produce a lot of toxic compounds, which contribute to fish mortality.
d. Their exponential growth in response to nutrient loading is the first stage of
e. Green-algae and blue-green algae both belong to the same phylum. to 36. Which statement about animals (kingdom Animalia) is CORRECT? ut
or on a. All chordates have two tissue layers, a bilaterally symmetrical body plan, and a postanal tail.
b. Sea anemones, corals, and other cnidarians exhibit an asymmetrical body plan.
c. Lophotrochozoans (flatworms, brachiopods, earthworms, and snails) grow by adding
mass to an existing body.
d. All molluscs possess a muscular foot, mantle, and an external shell.
e. Arthropods and nematodes are the two most numerous phyla (in terms of number of
described species) ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/10/2009 for the course BIO BIO150 taught by Professor Barrettt during the Spring '09 term at University of Toronto.
- Spring '09