APA Style for Formatting
Standard-sized paper (8.5 x 11 inches) with margins of 1 inch on all sides
Abstract: 75-100 words
Capitalize every word in the heading except articles (
), short prepositions (
), and coordinating conjunctions (
If the work has no author or editor, alphabetize the work by the first word of the title
(excluding A, An, or The).
APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using
signal phrases to describe earlier research. E.g., Jones (1998)
or Jones (1998)
In-Text Citation Capitalization, Quotes, and Italics/Underlining
Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are
four letters long or greater within the title of a source:
Permanence and Change
Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and
Writing New Media
There Is Nothing Left to Lose
. (Note that in your
References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized:
When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word:
Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case
Italicize or underline the titles of longer works such as books, edited collections,
movies, television series, documentaries, or albums:
The Closing of the American
The Wizard of Oz
Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles,
articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles:
"Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds"; "The One Where
Chandler Can't Cry."
If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of
publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the
quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of
publication in parentheses.
According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it
was their first time" (p. 199).
Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications
does this have for teachers?