Mit Term Review 1

Mit Term Review 1 - A: -Descriptive linguistics: The mere...

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A : -Descriptive linguistics: The mere observation as to how language is used in practice without any value judgments. (How language is). -Prescriptive linguistics: the codification of rules governing how a language is to be used such as standards for spelling and grammar, or rules for what is deemed correct (how language should be). B: - Symbol: Words are symbols: the pairing of sound and meaning (or, in sign language, of gesture and meaning) is not related to the content of the information conveyed. It is arbitrary. - Icon: Road signs are icons . They encode information in a way which relates (more or less) directly to the content of the information conveyed. They are not arbitrary. N. Korean road signs C: Arbitrariness of Sound & Meaning Pairings: (Phonology and Morphology) Sounds that (supposedly) imitate real sounds, and hence are not arbitrary. But actually, they are arbitrary because different languages use for different sounds. For example, animal sounds typically are onomatopoeic: cockadoodledoo (English roosters) kukuriku (Russian, Hebrew roosters) kookolilookoo (Ugandan roosters) We know an awful lot of sound-meaning pairings which are arbitrary We can also retrieve the meaning on the basis of the sound very quickly (200 ms) And we can tell that some sound combinations do not have meanings associated with them.
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So, there is a functional lexicon and a conceptual lexicon . The functional lexicon consists of words which have grammatical meaning, but are not concepts. The conceptual lexicon consists of concepts and the sounds, or names, that mark
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Mit Term Review 1 - A: -Descriptive linguistics: The mere...

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