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word-08-6 - In a Word 3.2 Concepts 2 What are concepts? Two...

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Unformatted text preview: In a Word 3.2 Concepts 2 What are concepts? Two Separate Questions: What are concepts ? What is the relationship between words and concepts ? Some words correspond to concepts (LOVE, TABLE, ANACRHONISM) They are part of the Conceptual Lexicon Other words correspond to grammatical building blocks (the, a, will, s) They are part of the Functional Lexicon. Very important: Prototype theory tells us that concepts have core and periphery, but it does not tell us how the core is determined . It tells us that not all birds are as good tokens of the concept BIRD , but it does not tell us why and how , exactly, ROBIN came to be more prototypical, conceptually, than TURKEY. Prototype theory tells us how we organize conceptual knowledge, but not how we gain it or what, exactly, it is. So, we have checklist theories , which tell us that what concepts are: they are fairly precise , and they can be decomposed into a small set of principles (also known as Atomic Globule Theories ). They (try) to tell us about the inner structure of any given concepts. And we have prototype theories which tell us that concepts are not precise , and that decomposing concepts is not how humans represent concepts. However, they do not actually tell us what the inner structure of any given concept is. We have seen the limits of Checklist Theories . We have also seen at least one limit of Prototype Theories : they do not actually tell us how we construct concepts and what they are. Some words cannot be interpreted in isolation. For instance, take BIG, SMALL, GOOD . Some more Limitations of Prototype Theory: The BIG BUTTERFLY butterfly landed on the roses The SMALL TANK rolled on the loan Similarly: In February, John finally realized he needs a GOOD UMBRELLA I had a GOOD MEAL yesterday Jane is a GOOD TEACHER teacher GOOD= functional GOOD = tasty GOOD = competent GOOD for an UMBRELLA GOOD for a MEAL GOOD for a TEACHER All these adjectives are defined relative to a scale which is provided by the noun. So, how many SMALL are there? How many BIG are there? How many GOOD are there? Fast boat : a boat that travels fast Fast book : *a book that travels fast Fast for a boat ???Fast for a book So, fast cannot be defined relative to a scale which is provided by the noun....
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word-08-6 - In a Word 3.2 Concepts 2 What are concepts? Two...

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