word-08-9 - In a Word The Wonderful World of Words...

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In a Word The Wonderful World of Words Morphology 1 September 23, 2008
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Do not forget: Mini Assignment due Thursday, September 25, at THE BEGINNING OF CLASS!
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Morphology assignment Is now available on Blackboard. Due: September 30 at the beginning of class.
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Word Structure -ize gives us verbs -ation gives us nouns -al gives us adjectives (is that always true? Consider arrival ) -ness gives us nouns -ly gives us adverbs (is that always true?)
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So - Let us assume that: -ize is a verb -ation is a noun -al is an adjective (at least sometimes) -ly is an adverb (at least sometimes) etc., etc.
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We give Words Structure by Building Word Trees
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Constraints on Word Formation: Word structures are binary (they have only two branches ): OK
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How to build morphological trees: Always start from the stem: The stem is the morpheme that is substantive (conceptual) and which does not have an obvious category in isolation
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Ion iz ation [ N [ V [ ion] ize] ation ]
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Structures for: Organ-iz-ation-al Multi-na-tion-al Un-god-li-ness Anti-dis-establish-ment-ar-ian-ism Question: how do we know what affix attaches to what structure?
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- ation attaches to verbs and returns nouns - ation does not attach to nouns ion(N) ize (V) ation (N)
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- al attaches to nouns and returns adjectives A transform (V) ation (N) al
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Some More English Suffixes: Suffix Change Example -ian -ic -ize(1) -less -ous -ity -ize(2) -ly -ness N A N A N V N A N A A N A V A Adv A N Canad-ian, vegetar-ian cub-ic, organ-ic hospital-ize, liquid-ize penni-less, job-less vigor-ous, poison-ous Stupid-ity, national-ity modern-ize quiet-ly, peaceful-ly happi-ness, godli-ness
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Word Structure: organ-iz-ation-al-ly trans-form-ation-al-ize establish-ment-ar-ian-ism *trans-form-ize-al-ation *god-ness-ly etc., etc., etc…
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Some English Prefixes: Prefix Change Example ex- in- un-(1) un-(2) re- N N A A A A V V V V ex-president , ex-husband in-human, in-competent un-able, un-kind un-lock, un-do re-think, re-direct
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A A ly (A) un ness (N) N [ [ un [ [ god ] ly ] ]ness ]
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How are
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