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Re rs and diale giste cts Nove be 18, 2008 m r S ociolinguistics
Phonology Prestige Geography Education Religion Tradition Culture Fashion Syntax Family
Economy Work Semantics Morphology Gender LanguageBe havior S ocial e cts ffe Facts about socie Language ty Wespe diffe ntly whe webe ak re n long to diffe nt re Re gions Ethnic groups S ocial groups S ocial classe s Agegroups Ge rs nde Wecall the diffe nce dialects se re s Wespe diffe ntly whe wearein ak re n diffe nt situations re I ntim vs. non-intim ate ate Arguing vs. joking Talking vs. re ading Official vs. non-official S chool, court, job inte ws, fam rvie ily Wecall the diffe nce registers se re s Within e ry m ve onolingual socie ty, (virtually) all individuals usem ultiple re rs, de nding on theconte giste pe xt. A Re r: giste
. spe cialize Vocabulary d pre rre syntactic structure fe d s pre rre phonological structure fe d s pre rre m fe d orphological structure s
use by spe sociological or profe d cific ssional groups for spe cial purpose s Effe appropriate ss/inappropriate ss cts: ne ne Marke of Re r: rs giste Vocabulary
Why is thefollowing dialoguefunny? Judge : I se that thecops say you we e re waste last night and we driving an d re old jalopy down them iddleof theroad. True ? De ndant: fe Your honor, if I m bepe itte to addre this base ss alle ight rm d ss le gation, I should liketo re that I was ne r ine port ithe briate nor unde theinflue of an d r nce alcoholic be rageof any kind; for there ve cord, I im d no boozelast e ning bibe ve
S ource Fine : gan, pp. 336-337 Marke of Re r: phonology rs giste
%of pronunciation of ing as [i] (and not as [in] ) in threespeech
situations am four social groups in NYC(source: Labov, 1966) ong
100 80 60
47 78 69 68 99 95 89 79 96 100 51 Casual Caref ul Reading 40 20 0 LC WC LMC UMC
20 %of pronunciation of ing as [i] (and not as [in] ) in two spe ch e situations by m s and fe ale in Los Ange s (source: Wald and Shopen ale m s le
1981) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Males Females
54 76 72 79 j oking arguing %of pronunciation of ing as [i] (and not as [in] ) in threespeech
situations am fivesocial groups in Norwich, England (source: ong
Trudgill, 1996) 100 80 60 40 20 0 LWC MWC UWC LMC MMC Casual Caref ul Reading Marke of Re r: S rs giste yntax
num r of se nce be nte -final pre positions pe thousand pre r positions in diffe nt situations re (Thete r wespokeabout...) Source: Biber 1988 ache
O f f icia l D ocum e nt s Pr e ss A ca d e m ic J our na ls G e ne r a l F ict ion R om a nt ic F ict ion S ci F i pr e pa r e d spe e ch e s b r oa d ca st s S pont a ne ous spe e ch e s I nt e r vie w s T e le ph one w / f r ie nd s F a ce - t o- F a ce non- f ict ion f ict ion spe e ch 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 S eMe om thods of Jargon and S lang C onstruction From: The Jargon File (Hackers' jargon) Ve Doubling rb S ound-alikeS lang The'-P' C onve ntion Ove ne rge ralization S poke I narticulations n Verb Doubling (morphological) Doubletheve and useit as an e rb xclam ation or e phasis (m m ostly for noise s): Bang, bang! Quack, quack! Doubleve as a sarcastic com e on thetopic or to te inatea rbs m nt rm conve rsation: Thedisk he just crashe Lose lose ads d. , . Mostly hetalke about his late crock. Flam , flam . d st e e Boy, what a bagbite C p, chom r! hom p! (And look it up in theJargon Dictionary if you don't know what crock or bagbite m an) r e Sound-alike Slang (phonological)
Rhymes or puns in order to convert an ordinary word or phrase into something more interesting. Dr. Dobb's Journal Dr. Frob's Journal' Dr. Frob's'. Boston Herald Boston Horrid (or Harried) Boston Globe Boston Glob Houston (or San Francisco) Chronicle the Crocknicle the Comical New York Times New York Slime Wall Street Journal Wall Street Urinal The '-P' Convention (syntax) Turning a word into a que stion by appe nding the syllable`P' to it. (Origin: thecom r languageLIS pute P) Q: FoodP? (pronunciation: food-pe ) e A: Ye I 'mpre hungry. ah, tty Q: S -of-the tate -world-P? A: I 'mabout to go hom . e Overgeneralization:
grepping for land Useof te chnical te s in non-te rm chnical situations. For instance UNIX hacke ofte gre for things , rs n p rathe than se r arch for the . m Ove ne rge ralization: Morphology 1
Wrong suffix, ofte by e nding a standard rule n xte : porous porosity ge rous ge rosity ne ne ous+ity m rious m riosity yste yste fe rrous fe rrosity obvious obviosity dubious dubiosity Add thesuffix itudeto turn adje ctiveto abstract nouns. Espe cially in case whe standard English would use-ine or -ingne s re ss ss.
win winnitude loss lossitude lam lam e itude disgust disgustitude Ove ne rge ralize `back-form d ation'
lossitude loss Latitude lat(s) ( horizontal de eline on a globe gre s ) Ove ne rge ralization: Morphology 2
All nouns can beve d: rbe
I 'll m ouseit up I 'mgre pping thefile s Hang on whileI clipboard it ove r Non-standard plural form s:
m ouse m e s e ce (afte caboose cabeese) r sock soxe n box boxe n unix unice s What hacke do not do: Pe rs ntagone jargon se
productize , prioritize se , curitize Spoken Inarticulations Words such as m ble sigh, and groan arespoke in um , n place whe m bling, sighing and groaning would be s re um m naturally use ore d. possiblesource im : possibility of re se pre nting nonlinguistic sounds on e ctronic m (but occur in som le ail e sarcastic dialogue of uppe class British in lite s r rature ) The Emergence of North American dialects Map of American Dialects The History of American English in a Nutshell
British English Britain I re land I ndia/Pakistan S outh Africa Australia Ne Ze w aland Am rican English e Unite S s d tate Canada Diale How do new Dialects/Languages cts:
com about? e
LanguageS paration: (rathe slow) e r Factors: Ge ographical S paration & S e ocial Distance Exam s: FromProto-I ndo Europe to Rom ple an ance Ge anic, S , rm lavic, I ndo-I ranian (...) languagefam s. ilie LanguageC ontact: (m faste uch r) Factors: Massivecontact of two com unitie spe m s aking re ciprocally uninte lligiblelanguage and im s possibility for e r of thetwo language ithe s to be ethelingua franca. S com ocial or ge ographical isolation. Exam s: AAE, Haitian, S ple wahili, Tok Pisin American English and Immigration Them diale are in theUScan betrace to the ain ct as d four m m ain igration of English spe aking population to Am rica fromtheBritish I sle during thecolonial e s pe (1607-1775) riod Migration of English spe aking pe afte that pe ople r riod (for instance theIrish m , igration in the19th ce ntury) did not affe Am rican English significantly ct e The Puritan Migration 1629-1640
Origin: East Anglia; S ocial Backgroud: m iddleclass; civil se nts. rve Targe Massachuse t: tts, e of theC cticut Rive ast onne r Pronunciation of [o] in words such as caught and bought Low front [a] inste of back in words such as far, fathe ad r (a so-calle `nasal twang') d De tion of syllablefinal [r], as in far, pronounce /fah/, C r le d arte pronounce /kahtah/ d Addition of [r] afte a final schwa, as in C r (inste of r ube ad C ). Latede lopm nt (afte colonial tim s). uba ve e r e Angle worminste of e ad arthworm pail rathe than bucke ; r t Influence: Major are e as: ntire Many ne England towns w Northe all theway to ast, Wisconsin and e cially in spe C hicago and county nam s de e rive fromEast Anglia Old Te stam nt nam s are e e m com on (Puritan ore m influe ; Joshua, nce Nathanial, e tc.) He w town nam s (e bre e .g. S m ale ) Dialectal Vocabulary: C (fromcurse uppe class [r]-le pronunciation) uss , r ss C onniption fit , scrim pe , snicke p, sky r S harp as a m at ax; big as all outdoors, cool as a e cucum r; wouldn't touch with a te be n-foot pole . Lowe theboomon som one takethewind out of r e , one sails, cold e 's nough to fre zetheballs off a brass e m y onke New York City English
(a diale within a diale ct ct) Main characte ristics de lope afte theBritish ve d r took ove Nie Am rdamin 1664. r uw ste Ne England English with Dutch influe w nce (e arly) and Yiddish influe (19th ce nce ntury) Final [r] is droppe likeNe England English d, w arepronounce with [o] rathe d r C aught, bought than [a] From Dutch: I nte ntals ([ as in the as in think) be ealve rde ] , com olar stops ([d] as in de , de , dat, [t] as in tink) (Dutch has no m se inte ntals). rde I want you to (do som thing) I want you should (do e som thing) (m befromDutch or fromYiddish, as both share e ay this fe ature ) FromYiddish (brought with theJe wish m igration fromEaste rn Europeof thelate19th e 20th ce arly ntury): S altz, chutzpah, schle ie schlim l, klutz, kve chm m l, aze tch, ye nta, schm , schnoz, schnook uck S eof the introduce into English consonant cluste that om se d rs did not e othe xist rwise /sn/, /kv/ : Ge lost, what's up, I should worry, I should liveso long, I ne d t e it likea holein thehe pardon thee ssion ad, xpre Joe -schm oe o; dipus-schm dipus, them thing is helove his e ain s m m om y TheRoyalist (C avalie r) Migration 1642-1675
Origin: S outh and S outh We England; st S ocial background: lowe nobility, ge r ntry. Targe Virginia t: Em rging diale Coastal S e ct: outhe rn English Vowe be elong or diphthongize (originate in S ls com d d outhe rn England) the`classic' S outhe `drawl': ha:wse ai:gz. rn , Akse inste of aske (fromS England). d ad d . Ain't inste of isn't (fromS England). ad . Loss of final [t], [d] afte anothe consonant : an(d), tol(d). r r First syllableacce d in words such as guitar, insurance July, nte , police e , am othe , lope ong rs. Bucke not pail. t, Yall for you all. Vocabulary Influences: Mad as a rooster in an empty henhouse, he's three bricks shy of a load, kneewalkin' drunk Snickerdoodles; tacky, varmint (fromve in) rm S pitting im (fromspirit and im of) age age Ratfink (fromAlbe Fink, who was a railroad de ctiveafte rt te r thecivil war with an unple asant pe rsonality) The Influence of African American English Massiveinflue on S nce outhe (White English from rn ) thelanguagespoke by Africans brought to Am rica as n e slave 1619-1808. s Wewill com back to this m r late e atte r The Quaker Migration 1675-1725
Origin: North Midland and Wales; Social Background: Middle Class Target: Delaware Valley Present day range: New Jersey, Pennsylvania. contributions: e m s. uphe ism S xe le anim te s, rock rathe ss al rm r than stone (te sticlein Old English), whitem at; dark e m at (rathe than e r chicke bre n ast/le ) g Late influe s: r nce Ge an rm and S dish we The Scots-Irish Migration 1718-1775
Origin: Anglo-Saxon populations of Scotland and Northern Ireland Target: Appalachian Backcountry Believed by some linguists to be the closest thing anywhere in the world today to Middle English and Early Modern English. Main Features: Hit (for it ), youns (you.pl), hisn, he yorn, the rn, irn I 'ma talking to you Me n-folk, m an-child, kin folks S low as C hristm slick as a pe le onion as, ed Fixin to, pe ne , afe d, be rt ar are holde uppe an, m ss of n, d e (lot of) This he , that the , that yonde re re r Bag calle sack, dragonfly calle m d d osquito hawk, gre n e be calle a snap be an d an Not nobody Ain't [n] som thin, nothin e (found in S cotch I rish diale of cts MiddleEnglish) I nflue s: NativeAm rican nce e Language e cially C roke , s, spe he e m with Appalachian English ix and S outhe C English to rn oast giveriseto theBackwoods or Highland southe diale rn ct. LanguageContact:
Pidgins and C ole re s African Am rican English e Pidgin is nobody's nativelanguage . I t arise s whe two (or m ) m n ore utually uninte lligiblespe ch e com unitie m com unicatewith e othe m s ust m ach r. Typically, the language havelim d se s ite vocabulary fromonelanguage and a sim (if , ple any) com on gram ar which se s to satisfy m m rve basic com unication ne ds. m e How do Pidgins emerge?
In tradece rs. nte For instance in East , Africa S wahili de lope froma ve d Pidgin languagecre d to facilitate ate com unication be e theBantu m twe n spe aking East African com unitie m s and Arab m rchants. e How do Pidgins emerge? Through conque and colonization. st For instance , Pidgin was theve rnacular use for com unication d m be e theAnglo-S twe n axon population and the Norm ruling e in an lite 11th and 12th C ntury e England. How do Pidgins emerge?
Through m assivevoluntary and involuntary m igration to a diffe nt spe ch e re e nvironm nt. e Them striking e ost xam s in ple m re nt history involve the ore ce s slavetradeto theNe World w fromWe Africa st From Pidgin to Creole Pidgin is not a re language and all al , its spe rs spe anothe languageas ake ak r a first language . But childre born in a Pidgin spe n aking com unity de lop a re language m ve al which is loose base on thePidgin ly d the he Thetypeof languagethat y ar. de lops whe Pidgin acquire native ve n s spe rs is calle C ole ake d re . th For instance in the13 C ntury, Middle , e English was a C olebe e English and re twe n French.
Tok Pisin, spoke in n Papua-Ne Guine is a w a, C oleof English and a re varie of nativePapuaty Ne Guine language w a s. C olization is m like to pe ve whe re ore ly rse re n the is a ce re rtain de eof isolation be e the gre twe n C olespe re aking com unity (of childre and m n adults) and thenon-C olespe re aking com unity. m This is why so m any docum nte Cre s have e d ole e e d in theconte of slave or ge m rge xt ry ographical isolation (for instance on islands). , What happens next? S e e not m om tim s, uch. The C olebe e e re com s stablishe as d a ne language For w . instance this is what , happe d to English. This ne also happe d to Tok Pisin , ne to Haitian, to C Ve ape rdian and othe rs) Mi laik painim ron bilong balus i kirap long Fraide. (I would like a flight that departs on
Friday.) [wav] Hamas bilong baim tiket i go long Mosbi?
(How much does a ticket to Port Moresby coast?) [wav] I gat sampela sit i stap long dispela ron bilong balus?
(Are there any seats left on that flight?) [wav] Raitim olgeta flait long Kavieng i go long Mosbi i gat stap long Manus na Madang.
(List all flights from Kavieng to Port Moresby with stopovers in Manus and Madang.) [wav] Wanem taim bai mi lusim dispela hap?
(What time do I leave?) [wav] TOKSAVE LONG OL RAITS BILONG OL MANMERI LONG OLGETA HAP BILONG DISPELA GIRAUN Unive rsal De claration of As Bilong Toktok
Long luksaveolse olge m e m igat m ta anm ri as re k, na olge m e long dispe spe ta anm ri la graun igat wankain raits long bihainimlaik bilong ol, long gat lo na oda na gat gutpe la sindaun. Long ol hap nam baut taimm e i no anm ri luksavelong raits bilong ol narape la m e dispe tingting weol m e anm ri, la anm ri m gat fridomlong toktok, gat fridom as blong igat bilip, fridomlong noke pore na n t fridomlong laikimol kainkain sam ting. Dispe e i bikpe sam bilong olge la m la ting ta m e anm ri. Hum Rights an Pre ble am Whe as re re cognition of theinhe nt dignity re and of thee qual and inalie nablerights of all m m rs of thehum fam is the e be an ily foundation of fre dom justiceand pe in e , ace theworld, Whe as disre re gard and conte pt for hum m an rights havere d in barbarous acts which sulte haveoutrage theconscie of m d nce ankind, and theadve of a world in which hum nt an be shall e fre domof spe ch and ings njoy e e be f and fre domfromfe and want has lie e ar be n proclaim d as thehighe aspiration of e e st thecom on pe , m ople S e e thelanguageunde om tim s, rgoe continuous s C olization, as m wave of m re ore s igration com in. e This is what happe d to m of theC ole ne any re s that we base on theslavetradein theNe re d w World, including thepre cursor of pre nt day se African-Am rican English. e And som tim s theCre e e ole unde s de re rgoe -C olization, as a re of an ongoing sult influe of thedom nce inant language This is what is . happe ning to AAE nowadays, as we as to ll various C aribbe Englishan base C ole d re s I givehimone Wehavein theworld today at le thefollowing ast docum nte type of Cre : e d s ole English base (for instanceJam d aican English, Gullah English, Tok Pisin) Fre nch base (for instanceHaitian, Mauritius Cre ) d ole Portugue base (for instance CapeVe se d , rdian) Dutch base (for instanceS d aram ) acan S panish base (for instancein thePhilippine ) d s All C olelanguage re re s, gardle ss of the origin, ir havesom im e portant characte ristics in com on: m Among the Characteristics of Creoles: Elim ination of infle ction, ge r, re nde gardle of source ss language I de ntity of adje s and adve ctive rbs I te ration (re duplication) for inte nsification of adv/adj: `big-big' De lopm nt of aspe inste of te ve e ct ad nse Ve littlebound infle ry ction; but m discre t fre any e e function words Why should that be ? Linguists Don't All Agree. Here are some theories:
C onve ncethrough re rge duction to m al inim linguistic unive rsals. African re ntions. te De nt fromoneoriginal (Portugue ) pidgin sce se (S abir, base on Prove (?), use during d nal d C rusade in theMe rrane s dite an). Baby Talk or Fore igne Talk. r African Am rican English e (Black English, Ebonics) Em rge from1620 onwards, as a re e d sult of theforce m d igration of We Africans st to North Am rica, who had to le e arn English quickly, and who we fre ntly re que isolate fromm m rs of the own d e be ir languagegroup or e n forbidde to spe ve n ak the nativelanguage ir . Pre ably was initially a Pidgin, but sum m haveC olize ust re d pre soon the afte and continuously re olize as ne tty re r, -cre d w wave of m s igration cam in, until theslavetradewas e outlawe in 1808. d The Origins of AAE All linguists agre that AAE is there e sult of We st African language toge r with English. s the There lativeratio of We African Language to st s English, and there lativeratio of S outhe English are rn not agre d upon. e S echaracte om ristics of AAE cle areC olelike arly re . For instance theloss of infle , ction, the substitution of aspe m rs for te m rs ct arke nse arke and othe rs. But AAE is also cle arly unde rgoing de - C olization, be ing progre ly m like re com ssive ore S tandard English. Linguists think that Gullah, spoke on thee rn n aste coast of Ge orgia, is thelast pocke of theC ole t re ante de of pre nt day AAE. ce nt se Some Phonological Characteristics of AAE: Word-final consonant cluste arere rs duce d: de de sk s post pos but walke walkt d (be causeof past te roleof e pronounce [t] ) nse d d Origin: We Africa. st I nflue : fromAAE to S nce outhe C rn oastal English More Phonological Characteristics of AAE: I nte ntal fricative ([[ ] ] ) arere d as e r alve stops ([t][d] ) or rde s alize ithe olar labiode fricative ([f],[v] ), de nding upon thelocation of theinte ntal ntal s pe rde in theword: Word initially: inte ntal alve stop rde olar [[ ] [t] (thin tin); [[ ] [d] (the de ) (voicevaluestays stable )
Word m dially or word finally: e inte ntal labiode rde ntal [[ ] [f] (bath baf ) [[ ] [v] (brothe brove r r) (voicevaluestays stable ) Origin: We st African language s. I nflue : fromAAE to S nce outhe rn C oastal English More Phonological Characteristics of AAE: Thevoice alve d olar fricative[z] is pronounce as a d voice alve stop d olar [d] be a nasal consonant. fore I sn't idn't; wasn't wadn't busine budine ss ss cousin coudin e tc. Origin: S outhwe rn England ste I nflue : fromS nce outhe C rn oastal to AAE More Phonological Characteristics of AAE: InS outhe C rn oastal and Ne England English [r] is w som tim s not pronounce [h] e e d
Hom ophone s: guard = god; par = pa; nor = gnaw; fort = fought; sore= saw; court = caught I n African-Am rican English, ther-le e ssne patte is ofte ss rn n le re ss stricte and [r] is not pronounce e n whe followe d, d, ve n d by a vowe l. Hom ophone s: C =C arol al; Paris = pass; te rrace= te st Origin: British English Distribution: Ne w England English, S outhe C rn oastal, AAE. More Phonological Characteristics of AAE: som thing som thin; fixing fixin e e Amnot, are n't, isn't ain't S ource S : outhwe England st I nflue : fromS nce outhe C rn oastal to AAE Syntactic Features of AAE
Useof BE as Aspe ctual m r: arke
That m bike y Thecoffe cold (now) e Thecoffe becold the (re e re gularly) Heworking (now) Hebeworking all day? (re gularly) Ye theboys do bem ssin' around a ah, e lot (re gularly) I se he whe I be e on m way to e r n /be s y school (re gularly) That is m bike y Thecoffe is cold (now) e Thecoffe is always cold the e re Heis working (now) Will hebeworking all day? Ye theboys do m ss around a lot ah, e I se he whe I 'mon m way to school e r n y Other Syntactic Features
You ain't gon haveno job I bedone Hebe n workin' e HeBEEN workin' You are going to havea job n't I 'll bedone Hehas be n working e Hehas be n working for a long tim e e I donegone I amdone Ne gativeC oncord
You ain't gon haveno job about no gun, I don't
you are going to have a job n't I don't know shit I don't know anything about a gun, I don't know shit about no dog, I don't know
know know anything about a dog, I don't shit about shit... anything about anything I know shit about a gun, I know shit about a dog, I know shit about shit...' I know nothing about a gun, I know nothing about a dog, I know nothing about anything...' I s Ne gativeC oncord Bad Gram ar? m No! It is a gram atical rulein its own right, which is pre nt in m m se any language although not in S s, tandard English: No ha ve nido Non ve nuto Not ................... Nobody cam e nadie ne ssuno nobody (S panish) (Italian) Da Vale nie rst nie oave re ve 's st e et n e Vale rie ne r ve in thee ning ne e ve g ats Vale ne r e in thee ning (We Fle ish) rie ve ats ve st m Vocabulary Influences: To bug (bugu = annoy) to dig (de = unde gu rstand), tote bag (tota = carry in Kikonga), hip (Wolof) Happy cat (Wolof, he picat = onewho has his e s ye wideope ) n voodoo (Obosum guardian spirit ) , mumbo jumbo (fromnam of a We African god) e st okra (nkrum / Bantu), an yam (njam/ S ne i e gal), banana (Wolof). sweet talking, every which way; to bad-mouth, highfive ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/10/2009 for the course LING 110Lg taught by Professor Borer during the Fall '07 term at USC.
- Fall '07