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Pidgins and C ole re s African Am rican English e
De m r 2, 2008 ce be Pidgin is nobody's nativelanguage . I t arise s whe two (or m ) m n ore utually uninte lligiblespe ch e com unitie m com unicatewith e othe m s ust m ach r. Typically, the language havelim d se s ite vocabulary fromonelanguage and a sim (if , ple any) com on gram ar which se s to satisfy m m rve basic com unication ne ds. m e How do Pidgins emerge?
I n tradece rs. nte For instance in East , Africa S wahili de lope froma ve d Pidgin languagecre d to facilitate ate com unication be e theBantu m twe n spe aking East African com unitie m s and Arab m rchants. e From Pidgin to Creole Pidgin is not a re language and all al , its spe rs spe anothe languageas ake ak r a first language . But childre born in a Pidgin spe n aking com unity de lop a re language m ve al which is loose base on thePidgin ly d the he Thetypeof languagethat y ar. de lops whe Pidgin acquire native ve n s spe rs is calle C ole ake d re . C olization is m like to pe ve whe re ore ly rse re n the is a ce re rtain de eof isolation be e the gre twe n C olespe re aking com unity (of childre and m n adults) and thenon-C olespe re aking com unity. m This is why so m any docum nte Cre s have e d ole e e d in theconte of slave or ge m rge xt ry ographical isolation (for instance on islands). , What happens next? S e e not m om tim s, uch. The C olebe e e re com s stablishe as d a ne language For w . instance this is what , happe d to English. This ne also happe d to Tok Pisin , ne to Haitian, to C Ve ape rdian and othe rs) Mi laik painim ron bilong balus i kirap long Fraide. (I would like a flight that departs on
Friday.) [wav] Hamas bilong baim tiket i go long Mosbi?
(How much does a ticket to Port Moresby coast?) [wav] I gat sampela sit i stap long dispela ron bilong balus?
(Are there any seats left on that flight?) [wav] Raitim olgeta flait long Kavieng i go long Mosbi i gat stap long Manus na Madang.
(List all flights from Kavieng to Port Moresby with stopovers in Manus and Madang.) [wav] Wanem taim bai mi lusim dispela hap?
(What time do I leave?) [wav] TOKSAVE LONG OL RAITS BILONG OL MANMERI LONG OLGETA HAP BILONG DISPELA GIRAUN Unive rsal De claration of As Bilong Toktok
Long luksaveolse olge m e m m ta anm ri as igat re k, na olge m e long dispe spe ta anm ri la graun igat wankain raits long bihainimlaik bilong ol, long gat lo na oda na gat gutpe la sindaun. Long ol hap nam baut taimm e i no anm ri luksavelong raits bilong ol narape la m e dispe tingting weol m e anm ri, la anm ri m gat fridomlong toktok, gat fridom as blong igat bilip, fridomlong noke pore na n t fridomlong laikimol kainkain sam ting. Dispe e i bikpe sam bilong olge la m la ting ta m e anm ri. Hum Rights an Pre ble am Whe as re re cognition of theinhe nt dignity re and of thee qual and inalie nablerights of all m m rs of thehum fam is the e be an ily foundation of fre dom justiceand pe in e , ace theworld, Whe as disre re gard and conte pt for hum m an rights havere d in barbarous acts which sulte haveoutrage theconscie of m d nce ankind, and theadve of a world in which hum nt an be shall e fre domof spe ch and ings njoy e e be f and fre domfromfe and want has lie e ar be n proclaim d as thehighe aspiration of e e st thecom on pe , m ople S e e thelanguageunde om tim s, rgoe continuous s C olization, as m wave of m re ore s igration com in. e This is what happe d to m of theC ole ne any re s that we base on theslavetradein theNe re d w World, including thepre cursor of pre nt day se African-Am rican English. e And som tim s theCre e e ole unde s de re rgoe -C olization, as a re of an ongoing sult influe of thedom nce inant language This is what is . happe ning to AAE nowadays, as we as to ll various C aribbe Englishan base C ole d re s I givehimone Wehavein theworld today at le thefollowing ast docum nte type of Cre : e d s ole English base (for instanceJam d aican English, Gullah English, Tok Pisin) Fre nch base (for instanceHaitian, Mauritius Cre ) d ole Portugue base (for instance CapeVe se d , rdian) Dutch base (for instanceS d aram ) acan S panish base (for instancein thePhilippine ) d s All C olelanguage re re s, gardle ss of the origin, ir havesom im e portant characte ristics in com on: m Among the Characteristics of Creoles: Elim ination of infle ction, ge r, re nde gardle of source ss language I de ntity of adje s and adve ctive rbs I te ration (re duplication) for inte nsification of adv/adj: `big-big' De lopm nt of aspe inste of te ve e ct ad nse Ve littlebound infle ry ction; but m discre t fre any e e function words Why should that be ? Linguists Don't All Agree. Here are some theories:
C onve ncethrough re rge duction to m al inim linguistic unive rsals. African re ntions. te De nt fromoneoriginal (Portugue ) pidgin sce se (S abir, base on Prove (?), use during d nal d C rusade in theMe rrane s dite an). Baby Talk or Fore igne Talk. r African Am rican English e (Black English, Ebonics) Em rge from1620 onwards, as a re e d sult of theforce m d igration of We Africans st to North Am rica, who had to le e arn English quickly, and who we fre ntly re que isolate fromm m rs of the own d e be ir languagegroup or e n forbidde to ve n spe the nativelanguage ak ir . Pre ably was initially a Pidgin, but sum m haveC olize ust re d pre soon the afte and continuously re olize as ne tty re r, -cre d w wave of m s igration cam in, until theslavetradewas e outlawe in 1808. d The Origins of AAE All linguists agre that AAE is there e sult of We st African language toge r with English. s the There lativeratio of We African Language to st s English, and there lativeratio of S outhe English are rn not agre d upon. e S echaracte om ristics of AAE cle areC olelike arly re . For instance theloss of infle , ction, the substitution of aspe m rs for te m rs ct arke nse arke and othe rs. But AAE is also cle arly unde rgoing de - C olization, be ing progre ly m like re com ssive ore S tandard English. Linguists think that Gullah, spoke on thee rn n aste coast of Ge orgia, is thelast pocke of theC ole t re ante de of pre nt day AAE. ce nt se Some Phonological Characteristics of AAE: Word-final consonant cluste arere rs duce d: de de sk s post pos but walke walkt d (be causeof past te roleof e pronounce [t] ) nse d d Origin: We Africa. st I nflue : fromAAE to S nce outhe C rn oastal English More Phonological Characteristics of AAE: I nte ntal fricative ( ) arere d as e r alve stops ([t][d] ) or rde s alize ithe olar labiode fricative ([f],[v] ), de nding upon thelocation of theinte ntal ntal s pe rde in theword: Word initially: inte ntal alve stop rde olar [t] (thin tin); [d] (the de ) (voicevaluestays stable )
Word m dially or word finally: e inte ntal labiode rde ntal [f] (bath baf) [v] (brothe brove r r) (voicevaluestays stable ) Origin: We st African language s. I nflue : fromAAE to S nce outhe rn C oastal English More Phonological Characteristics of AAE: Thevoice alve d olar fricative[z] is pronounce as a d voice alve stop d olar [d] be a nasal consonant. fore I sn't idn't; wasn't wadn't busine budine ss ss cousin coudin e tc. Origin: S outhwe rn England ste I nflue : fromS nce outhe C rn oastal to AAE More Phonological Characteristics of AAE: InS outhe C rn oastal and Ne England English [r] is w som tim s not pronounce [h] e e d Hom ophone s: guard = god; par = pa; nor = gnaw; fort = fought; sore= saw; court = caught I n African-Am rican English, ther-le e ssne patte is ofte ss rn n le re ss stricte and [r] is not pronounce e n whe followe d, d, ve n d by a vowe l. Hom ophone s: C =C arol al; Paris = pass; te rrace= te st Origin: British English Distribution: Ne w England English, S outhe C rn oastal, AAE. More Phonological Characteristics of AAE: som thing som thin; fixing fixin e e Amnot, are n't, isn't ain't S ource S : outhwe England st I nflue : fromS nce outhe C rn oastal to AAE Syntactic Features of AAE
Useof BE as Aspe ctual m r: arke
That m bike y Thecoffe cold (now) e Thecoffe becold the (re e re gularly) Heworking (now) Hebeworking all day? (re gularly) Ye theboys do bem ssin' around a ah, e lot (re gularly) I se he whe I be e on m way to e r n /be s y school (re gularly) That is m bike y Thecoffe is cold (now) e Thecoffe is always cold the e re Heis working (now) Will hebeworking all day? Ye theboys do m ss around a lot ah, e I se he whe I 'mon m way to school e r n y Other Syntactic Features
You ain't gon haveno job I bedone Hebe n workin' e HeBEEN workin' You are going to havea job n't I 'll bedone Hehas be n working e Hehas be n working for a long tim e e I donegone I amdone Ne gativeC oncord
You ain't gon haveno job about no gun, I don't
you are going to have a job n't I don't know shit I don't know anything about a gun, I don't know shit about no dog, I don't know
know know anything about a dog, I don't shit about shit... anything about anything I know shit about a gun, I know shit about a dog, I know shit about shit...' I know nothing about a gun, I know nothing about a dog, I know nothing about anything...' I s Ne gativeC oncord Bad Gram ar? m No! It is a gram atical rulein its own right, which is pre nt in m m se any language although not in S s, tandard English: No ha ve nido Non ve nuto Not ................... Nobody cam e nadie ne ssuno nobody (S panish) (Italian) Da Vale nie rst nie oave re ve 's st e et n e Vale rie ne r ve in thee ning ne e ve g ats Vale ne r e in thee ning (We Fle ish) rie ve ats ve st m Vocabulary Influences: To bug (bugu = annoy) to dig (de = unde gu rstand), tote bag (tota = carry in Kikonga), hip (Wolof) Happy cat (Wolof, he picat = onewho has his e s ye wideope ) n voodoo (Obosum guardian spirit ) , mumbo jumbo (fromnam of a We African god) e st okra (nkrum / Bantu), an yam (njam/ S ne i e gal), banana (Wolof). sweet talking, every which way; to bad-mouth, highfive ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/10/2009 for the course LING 110Lg taught by Professor Borer during the Fall '07 term at USC.
- Fall '07