word-08-21B-review

word-08-21B-review - Brain and Language The cerebral...

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Unformatted text preview: Brain and Language The cerebral hemispheres are divided into a right hemisphere and a left hemisphere. Each hemisphere is specialized for some behaviors. The hemispheres communicate with each other through a thick band of 200-250 million nerve fibers, called the corpus callosum . Language Math Logic Spatial abilities Face recognition Visual imagery The right side of the brain controls muscles on the left side of the body and the left side of the brain controls muscles on the right side of the body. Brain damage to one side of the brain will affect the opposite side of the body. Sensory information from the left side of the body crosses over to the right side of the brain and information from the right side of the body crosses over to the left side of the brain through the corpus callosum . So, say a "typical" (language in the LEFT hemisphere) split-brain patient is looking straight ahead and is focusing on a dot in the middle of a screen. Then a picture of a spoon is flashed to the right of the dot. The visual information about the spoon ends up in the LEFT HEMISPHERE. When the patient is asked what the picture was, s/he has no problem identifying the spoon and saying “spoon." But if the spoon had been flashed to the left of the dot then the visual information would have traveled to the RIGHT HEMISPHERE. Now if the patient is asked what the picture was, s/he would claim that nothing was seen. “spoon” “spoon” In that same situation, when the same patient is asked to pick out an object using only the LEFT hand, s/he will correctly pick out the spoon. This is because touch information from the left hand crosses over to the right hemisphere- the side that "saw" the spoon. However, if the person is again asked what the object is, even when it is in his/her hand, s/he will NOT be able to name it, because the right hemisphere is "non-verbal”. Aphasia Research: Broca and Wernicke Aphasia In 1836, Marc Dax reported a group of patients with speech problems who all had damage to the left side of their brain. In 1861, Paul Broca , in a posthumous examination of an aphasic patient, revealed damage to part of the left frontal cortex (in the temporal lobe). This part of the brain has come to be known as "Broca's Area." Damage to Broca’s area is called Broca’s Aphasia, or Agrammatism In 1876, Karl Wernicke found that damage to a different part of the left hemisphere brain also caused language problems. That area of the brain ("Wernicke's Area") is further back and lower compared to Broca's area, in the posterior part of the temporal lobe. Damage to Wernicke’s area is called Wernicke’s Aphasia. Broca's area and Wernicke's area are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the arcuate fasciculus. Damage to the arcuate fasciculus is called Conduction Aphasia . Reading, sensation of pain, temperature, touch, pressure, taste Visual processing Audition, memory processing, sensory integration Planning, Prediction, Speech, discreet movements of the body Language related areas in the left hemisphere Angular Gyrus – reading Angular Gyrus –...
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This note was uploaded on 09/10/2009 for the course LING 110Lg taught by Professor Borer during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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word-08-21B-review - Brain and Language The cerebral...

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