LING110ExamIIStudyGuide

LING110ExamIIStudyGuide - 1.1 Lack of segmentability Speech...

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Unformatted text preview: 1.1 Lack of segmentability: Speech is continuous and there are no clear spaces between sound and acoustic signals. Problem: Difficult for foreign people to understand new languages because there are no clear spaces. Also hard for babies to learn and adults to pick out lyrics to a song under certain unpredictable circumstances. Computers cannot pick up words because of our languages lack of segmentability. Lack of invariance: ‘Same’ sound does not always sound the same. Varies depending on phonetic context, emotional state of speaker, speech rate, prosody (placement and important in sentence). Problem: Too many variables play into perceiving the sound that it is impossible to listen for key elements. Age, sex, culture, rate, emotion etc… A computer cannot create a common speech pattern with so many options and ways to say the words. Properties of Speech sound waves: Lack of invariance and lack of segmentability are caused by our speech production (or rather, how we physically say the words of our language). The vocal tract consists of a tube with air going in one end from the lungs and coming out the other end as the sound waves leave the mouth. That is the path of a speech sound wave. Sound is generated by a vocal fold vibration Sound is shaped by geometry of the tube 1.2 Word games tell us that syllable structure is very malleable and easy to manipulate into new words. Pig latin is when you take the rhyme of a word and say it before the onset + add -ay at the end. I-ay ove-lay is-thay ass-clay. Some word games value vowels and consonants separately. Different languages have different word games. 1.3 Structure of syllables: The onset is the beginning sounds of the syllable preceding the nucleaus [vowel]. The rhyme is the rest of the syllable, after the onset. Nucleus + Coda. The coda is the rest after the nucleus. 1.4 what poetry tells us about syllables and stress • 1.4.1 what good and bad poetry rhymes tell us about stress and syllables • good rhyme = mouse & house • bad rhyme = mouse & green house (where green is stressed) • shows us the importance of the nucleus… o the nucleus is the head of the rhyme, which is the head of the syllable o the STRESSED syllable is the head of the word o a good rhyme has the heads of the word, the stressed syllables, rhyme • 1.4.2 what meter tells us about syllables and stress • shows us the stress patterns of particular languages • English uses iambic / anapest best • • Iambic meter and two beat meters o iambic: 1 # 1 # 1 # OR two beat: # 1 # 1 # 1 o • Anapest meter and three beat meters o anapest: 1 2 # 1 2 # 1 2 # OR three beat: # 1 2 # 1 2 # 1 2 o 1.5 The difference between spelling and sound • multiple spellings can all denote the same sound o f lower, stiff , enough , eleph ant • while one spelling can denote multiple sounds o c an, c ease 2.1 FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION (by children) PHONOLOGY Babbling (4 th and 5 th stages of sound acquisition) • 4) babbling (5-10 months) begin to form first syllables (ie:...
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This note was uploaded on 09/10/2009 for the course LING 110Lg taught by Professor Borer during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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LING110ExamIIStudyGuide - 1.1 Lack of segmentability Speech...

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