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3&4Carbohydrates - I Carbohydrates a Simple i...

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11/5/07 I. Carbohydrates a. Simple i. Monosaccharides 1. Glucose – most abundant 2. Fructose – sweetest natural sugar, found in fruit 3. Galactose – usually found with a disaccharide 4. [NOTE: High Fructose Corn Syrup: glucse   fructose] ii. Disaccharides 1. Sucrose (table sugar) – purify it from beets or sugar cane (glucose  + fructose) 2. Lactose (milk sugar) – found in the milk of most animals (glucose  + galactose) 3. Maltose – breakdown product of starch (glucose + glucose) b. Complex Carbohydrates i. Oligosaccharides – between the di and poly saccharides (about 10  sugars strung together) 1. Beans and Legumes a. Raffinose (galactose + glucose + fructose) b. Stachyose (3 glucose + fructose) 2. Breast milk – may different oligosaccharides ii. Polysaccharides 1. Starch – string of glucose
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2. *** Resistant starches – modified just enough so that we don’t digest them. Butyrate… 3. Glycogen – animal starch; branched molecule of chained glucose (stored in humans) 4. Dietary Fibers – 25-30 grams/day a. Dietary Fiber vs. Functional Fiber i. Dietary Fiber – consumed in the diet that is in whole or unprocessed fiber ii. Functional Fiber – fibers added as a supplement (slim fast shake) b. Cellulose – Beta 1-4 bonds between glucose units c. Carbohydrate Digestion – We want to break the carbohydrates into monosaccharides because that’s what goes into the blood stream. i. Mouth – salivary amylase ii. Stomach – not much iii. Small Intestine (most of the digestion occurs here) 1. Pancreatic amylase 2. Maltase, sucrose, lactase from cells lining small intestines (takes disaccharides binds and breaks them into monosaccharides.) iv. Large Intestine 1. Bacteria ferment fibers d. Carbohydrate Absorption i.
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3&4Carbohydrates - I Carbohydrates a Simple i...

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